Tolkien Gateway

Ainulindalë (Morgoth's Ring)

(Difference between revisions)
(Continued, not finished)
(Continued, not finished)
Line 22: Line 22:
 
The title-page says: "''This was written by [[Rúmil (elf of Tirion)|Rúmil]] of [[Túna]] and was told to [[Ælfwine]] in [[Eressëa]] (as he records) by [[Pengoloð]] the Sage''". None of the earlier texts about Ælfwine is said that Pengoloð (Pengolod) instructed him directly, but he is cited as the author of works translated by Ælfwine.<ref name=Ainu>{{MR|Ainu}}</ref>{{rp|8}}
 
The title-page says: "''This was written by [[Rúmil (elf of Tirion)|Rúmil]] of [[Túna]] and was told to [[Ælfwine]] in [[Eressëa]] (as he records) by [[Pengoloð]] the Sage''". None of the earlier texts about Ælfwine is said that Pengoloð (Pengolod) instructed him directly, but he is cited as the author of works translated by Ælfwine.<ref name=Ainu>{{MR|Ainu}}</ref>{{rp|8}}
  
The narrative follows closely the [[Ainulindalë (Lost Road)|previous version]] during the first paragraphs, but the structure is completely changed with the inclusion of important elements: after the Great Music, [[Ilúvatar]] doesn't show the new creation to the [[Ainur]], but a [[Vision of Ilúvatar|Vision]]. There they can see the history of the world and the coming of the [[Children of Ilúvatar]], and they wished in their hearts that the world was real like them. Then the Vision is taken away, and Ilúvatar gives Being to the Vision with his [[Ëa|creative word]]. After the entry of the Ainur into the World, the Valar do not simply occupy their realms in nature, but they find the World almost unshaped, so they begin their agelong labours. Thus is formed the dwelling of the Children of Ilúvatar, which Melkor claims for himself. A strife begins between him alone and the Valar, and he withdrews outside Earth. As they had behold in the Vision, the Valar took the [[fana|shape]] of the Children of Ilúvatar, and [[Manwë]], [[Varda]], [[Aulë]], [[Yavanna]], [[Ulmo]], [[Nienna]] and Melkor were the Seven [[Aratar|Great Ones]] of the Kingdom of [[Arda]]. While they worked with other [[Maiar|lesser spirits]] on building the Earth, Melko became envious their beauty, and took a dark form. The [[First War]] for the dominion of Arda, in which Melkor tried to destroy all the creations of the Valar. But the Valar endeavoured in despite of him and slowly the Earth was established.
+
The narrative follows closely the [[Ainulindalë (Lost Road)|previous version]] during the first paragraphs, but the structure is completely changed with the inclusion of important elements: after the Great Music, [[Ilúvatar]] doesn't show the new creation to the [[Ainur]], but a [[Vision of Ilúvatar|Vision]]. There they can see the history of the world and the coming of the [[Children of Ilúvatar]], and they wished in their hearts that the world was real like them. Then the Vision is taken away, and Ilúvatar gives Being to the Vision saying "''Let these thing Be!''". (Notice that the word ''[[]]'' is still not included). After the entry of the Ainur into the World, the Valar do not simply occupy their realms in nature, but they find the World almost unshaped, so they begin their agelong labours. Thus is formed the dwelling of the Children of Ilúvatar, which Melkor claims for himself. A strife begins between him alone and the Valar, and he withdrews outside Earth. As they had behold in the Vision, the Valar took the [[fana|shape]] of the Children of Ilúvatar, and [[Manwë]], [[Varda]], [[Aulë]], [[Yavanna]], [[Ulmo]], [[Nienna]] and Melkor were the Seven [[Aratar|Great Ones]] of the Kingdom of [[Arda]]. While they worked with other [[Maiar|lesser spirits]] on building the Earth, Melko became envious their beauty, and took a dark form. The [[First War]] for the dominion of Arda, in which Melkor tried to destroy all the creations of the Valar. But the Valar endeavoured in despite of him and slowly the Earth was established.
  
 
Here ends the ''Ainulindalë'' of Rúmil, but Pengoloð continues, as Ælfwine ask him about the Coming of the Valar. Thus, as Christopher explains, the continuation of the narrative is placed as a sort of Appendix.<ref name=Ainu>{{MR|Ainu}}</ref>{{rp|26}} Here is told how the war ends with the coming of [[Tulkas]], who defeats Melkor, the building of the [[Two Lamps]], the dwelling of the Valar in the isle of [[Almaren|Almar]], the destruction of the Lamps, the foundation of [[Valinor]] and [[Utumno]], and how the Valar abandoned [[Middle-earth]]. Follows a description of the three main Valar and their relation with the [[Three Kindreds]] of the [[Eldar]]. The texts ends like the previous version: coming back to Ilúvatar, he makes a declaration about the gifts and nature of his Children.
 
Here ends the ''Ainulindalë'' of Rúmil, but Pengoloð continues, as Ælfwine ask him about the Coming of the Valar. Thus, as Christopher explains, the continuation of the narrative is placed as a sort of Appendix.<ref name=Ainu>{{MR|Ainu}}</ref>{{rp|26}} Here is told how the war ends with the coming of [[Tulkas]], who defeats Melkor, the building of the [[Two Lamps]], the dwelling of the Valar in the isle of [[Almaren|Almar]], the destruction of the Lamps, the foundation of [[Valinor]] and [[Utumno]], and how the Valar abandoned [[Middle-earth]]. Follows a description of the three main Valar and their relation with the [[Three Kindreds]] of the [[Eldar]]. The texts ends like the previous version: coming back to Ilúvatar, he makes a declaration about the gifts and nature of his Children.
Line 29: Line 29:
  
 
===''Ainulindalë'' D===
 
===''Ainulindalë'' D===
This new version of the ''Ainulindalë'' is from a manuscript of "unusual splendour", with illuminated capitals and a beautiful script with Anglo-Saxon typography, which includes medieval abbreviations. It was written probably soon after finishing the ''Ainulindalë'' C, as it improves its shapes, clarifying many narrative shapes. Like many other texts, the new version is very similar to the previous one in the beginning, and diverges more and more as it proceeds.<ref name=Ainu>{{MR|Ainu}}</ref>{{rp|29-30}}
+
This new version of the ''Ainulindalë'' is from a manuscript of "unusual splendour", with illuminated capitals and a beautiful script with Anglo-Saxon typography, which includes medieval abbreviations. It was written probably soon after finishing the ''Ainulindalë'' C, as it puts in order many things, clarifying many narrative shapes. Like many other Tolkien's texts, the new version is very similar to the previous one in the beginning, and diverges more and more as it proceeds.<ref name=Ainu>{{MR|Ainu}}</ref>{{rp|29-30}} Therefore, Christopher doesn't includes the first twelve pragraphs, which are identical to version C, and gives the differences with notes between §13 and §31. After §31, the text differs so much that he gives the text in full.
 
+
Therefore, Christopher doesn't includes the first twelve pragraphs, which are identical to version C, and gives the differences with notes between §13 and §31. After §31, the text differs so much that he gives the text in full.
+
  
 +
Christopher comments that this text "can only i part be called a new version", as it does not extend, contradict or clarify the 'new cosmology'. There are some points in which there is more coherence with Arda as the realm within the World. There is a new element: for the creation of the World, Ilúvatar uses the word ''[[Ea]]'', which gives name to the Universe. However, in the ''[[#Alteration in last revision 1951]]'', ''Ëa'' is defined as "Universe of that which Is", and Christopher explains that probably ''Ëa'' cannot only be equivalent to 'the World that Is', but to everything that exists: the World, the Ainur and the [[Timeless Halls]].<ref name=Ainu>{{MR|Ainu}}</ref>{{rp|37-38}}
  
 
===''Ainulindalë'' C*===
 
===''Ainulindalë'' C*===

Revision as of 13:49, 26 March 2020

The name Ainulindalë refers to more than one character, item or concept. For a list of other meanings, see Ainulindalë (disambiguation).
Morgoth's Ring
Part One: Ainulindalë
Part Two: The Annals of Aman
Part Three: The Later Quenta Silmarillion
  1. The First Phase
    1. Of the Valar
    2. Of Valinor and the Two Trees
    3. Of the Coming of the Elves
    4. Of Thingol and Melian
    5. Of Eldanor and the Princes of the Eldalië
    6. Of the Silmarils and the Darkening of Valinor
    7. Of the Flight of the Noldor
    8. Of the Sun and Moon and the Hiding of Valinor
  2. The Second Phase
    1. The Valaquenta
    2. The Earliest Version of the Story of Finwë and Míriel
    3. Laws and Customs Among the Eldar
    4. Later Versions of the Story of Finwë and Míriel
    5. Of Fëanor and the Unchaining of Melkor
    6. Of the Silmarils and the Unrest of the Noldor
    7. Of the Darkening of Valinor
    8. Of the Rape of the Silmarils
    9. Of the Thieves' Quarrel
Part Four: Athrabeth Finrod ah Andreth
Tale of Adanel
Part Five: Myths Transformed

The Ainulindalë is the first part of Morgoth's Ring, the tenth volume of The History of Middle-earth. It contains three different versions of the Ainulindalë (Rúmil's work) written after the last version published in The Lost Road and Other Writings.

Contents

Synopsis

When he had just begun to write The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien rewrote the cosmological myth in what his son lettered as Ainulindalë B. Christopher assumed that his father didn't come back to the matter of the Elder Days until finishing The Lord of the Rings, but editing this new volume, he realized that Tolkien did work on the Ainulindalë before starting The Return of the King. He found a single torn sheet of a new version of the Ainulindalë from 1946 and two drafts of the Letter 115. This letter was probably written in 1948, to Katherine Farrer, the wife of the theologian Austin Farrer, answering her comments on the Legendarium. He had previously lent her some manuscripts, including a Round World Version of the Ainulindalë, which Christopher letters as C*, and the previous Ainulindalë B. Mrs. Farrer preferred the Flat World Version, answering Tolkien with great entusiasm:

I like the Flat World versions best. The hope of Heaven is the only thing which makes modern astronomy tolerable: otherwise there must be an East and a West and Walls: aims and choices and not an endless circle of wandering.

She even asked to read more about The Silmarillion, and Tolkien "was really very touched by [her] kind letter – and also excited",[1] although it took a long time for answering her, due he could not find some manuscripts to lend her. Thus, Tolkien rejected the Round World version of the Ainulindalë and wrote a new version directly from the version B. As Christopher summarizes:

  • Ainulindalë B, a manuscript from 1930s, lent to Katherine Ferrer in 1948 with the 'Flat World Version' written in it.
  • A new version, lost apart from a single torn sheet, written in 1946.
  • Ainulindalë C*, a typescript based on this last text, lent to Katherine Ferrer in 1948 with the 'Round World Version' written in it.
  • Ainulindalë C, made from version B, removing innovative elements of version C*.
  • Ainulindalë D, the last clean version, probably made not longer after version C.

Due the peculiarities of version C*, Christopher does not give the texts in chronological order.

Alteration in last revision 1951

Before starting with the Ainulindalë texts, Christopher gives a brief but important document: an isolated list of names headed Alteration in last revision 1951. Here are given definitive Elvish names, such as Eru, Arda, Almaren, among others. Not all of them were newly devised, some of them go back to The Notion Club Papers and The Drowning of Anadûnê. Thus, this list has great value of dating, as the differences with Ainulindalë D show that this last version was written before 1951.[2]:7

Ainulindalë C

The title-page says: "This was written by Rúmil of Túna and was told to Ælfwine in Eressëa (as he records) by Pengoloð the Sage". None of the earlier texts about Ælfwine is said that Pengoloð (Pengolod) instructed him directly, but he is cited as the author of works translated by Ælfwine.[2]:8

The narrative follows closely the previous version during the first paragraphs, but the structure is completely changed with the inclusion of important elements: after the Great Music, Ilúvatar doesn't show the new creation to the Ainur, but a Vision. There they can see the history of the world and the coming of the Children of Ilúvatar, and they wished in their hearts that the world was real like them. Then the Vision is taken away, and Ilúvatar gives Being to the Vision saying "Let these thing Be!". (Notice that the word is still not included). After the entry of the Ainur into the World, the Valar do not simply occupy their realms in nature, but they find the World almost unshaped, so they begin their agelong labours. Thus is formed the dwelling of the Children of Ilúvatar, which Melkor claims for himself. A strife begins between him alone and the Valar, and he withdrews outside Earth. As they had behold in the Vision, the Valar took the shape of the Children of Ilúvatar, and Manwë, Varda, Aulë, Yavanna, Ulmo, Nienna and Melkor were the Seven Great Ones of the Kingdom of Arda. While they worked with other lesser spirits on building the Earth, Melko became envious their beauty, and took a dark form. The First War for the dominion of Arda, in which Melkor tried to destroy all the creations of the Valar. But the Valar endeavoured in despite of him and slowly the Earth was established.

Here ends the Ainulindalë of Rúmil, but Pengoloð continues, as Ælfwine ask him about the Coming of the Valar. Thus, as Christopher explains, the continuation of the narrative is placed as a sort of Appendix.[2]:26 Here is told how the war ends with the coming of Tulkas, who defeats Melkor, the building of the Two Lamps, the dwelling of the Valar in the isle of Almar, the destruction of the Lamps, the foundation of Valinor and Utumno, and how the Valar abandoned Middle-earth. Follows a description of the three main Valar and their relation with the Three Kindreds of the Eldar. The texts ends like the previous version: coming back to Ilúvatar, he makes a declaration about the gifts and nature of his Children.

Christopher highlights one of the mayor conceptual changes: in the early Ambarkanta, the Earth was the same as Ilu ("the world, everything"), but in the Diagram I, Tolkien later changed Ilu with Arda. Therefore, Arda is no longer the 'World globed amid the Void', but it is within 'the World', which is itself 'globed amid the Void'. Thus Arda is chosen by Ilúvatar 'in the midst of the innumerable stars' to the habitation of his Children. This rise great questions about the Walls of the World: while in the early conceptions it was clear they led to the Void, now it is unclear if they are just the limits of Ilmen, but it also explains how the Valar could expel Melko twice from Arda.[2]:28-29

Ainulindalë D

This new version of the Ainulindalë is from a manuscript of "unusual splendour", with illuminated capitals and a beautiful script with Anglo-Saxon typography, which includes medieval abbreviations. It was written probably soon after finishing the Ainulindalë C, as it puts in order many things, clarifying many narrative shapes. Like many other Tolkien's texts, the new version is very similar to the previous one in the beginning, and diverges more and more as it proceeds.[2]:29-30 Therefore, Christopher doesn't includes the first twelve pragraphs, which are identical to version C, and gives the differences with notes between §13 and §31. After §31, the text differs so much that he gives the text in full.

Christopher comments that this text "can only i part be called a new version", as it does not extend, contradict or clarify the 'new cosmology'. There are some points in which there is more coherence with Arda as the realm within the World. There is a new element: for the creation of the World, Ilúvatar uses the word Ea, which gives name to the Universe. However, in the #Alteration in last revision 1951, Ëa is defined as "Universe of that which Is", and Christopher explains that probably Ëa cannot only be equivalent to 'the World that Is', but to everything that exists: the World, the Ainur and the Timeless Halls.[2]:37-38

Ainulindalë C*

References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 115, (dated 15 June, year unknown (possibly 1948))
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Morgoth's Ring, "Part One. Ainulindalë"