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Barad-dûr

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Barad-dûr
Physical Description
TypeTower
Locationnorthwestern Mordor
RealmsMordor
InhabitantsSauron, Nazgul, Orcs
Descriptiongargantuan tower that hosted the Eye of Sauron
General Information
Other namesLugburz, The Dark Tower
EtymologyS. "Dark Tower"
EventsSiege of Barad-dur
ReferencesUnfinished Tales, The Lord of the Rings
""...wall upon wall, battlement upon battlement, black, immeasurably strong, mountain of iron, gate of steel, tower of adamant... Barad-dûr, fortress of Sauron.""
― Vision of Frodo Baggins[1]

Barad-dûr, the Dark Tower, was the chief fortress of Sauron, on the Plateau of Gorgoroth in Mordor. Known in Black Speech as Lugburz, the Eye of Sauron kept watch over Middle-earth from its highest tower.

Contents

History

First Building of Barad-dûr

Barad-dûr was built by Sauron with the power of the One Ring during the Second Age, in c. S.A. 1000. The fortress took six hundred years to complete; it was the greatest fortress ever built since the Fall of Angband, and much of Sauron's personal power went into it.

Soon after its construction, Tar-Minastir of Númenor sent a fleet to Middle-earth, and Sauron's forces were driven out of the western lands that they had roamed at will to that time. Barad-dûr could not be approached by the Númenóreans, however, and Sauron was able to consolidate his power and extend it into the east. However, In S.A. 3262, Sauron left his Dark Tower to travel to Númenor with the vast forces of Ar-Pharazôn; he returned after the Downfall of Númenor in S.A. 3319.

In S.A. 3434, the Last Alliance of Elves and Men besieged Barad-dûr. The siege lasted for seven years , and the Dark Tower was finally leveled after Sauron's defeat at the end of the Second Age.

Because Barad-dûr was created using the power of the One Ring its foundations could not be destroyed completely unless the Ring itself should be destroyed. Isildur failed to destroy the Ring, and so its foundations remained.

Reconstruction of Barad-dùr

The Reconstruction of Barad-dùr began after Sauron was driven from Mirkwood in T.A. 2941 by the White Council. Given that the Tower originally took some six hundred years to raise, it seems surprising that its second building can have taken no more than a few decades. As mentioned before, the foundations of the Dark Tower remained ready to build upon, so it is perhaps explained.

Only when the One Ring was destroyed did the Tower finally fall; without Sauron's power to sustain it, it could not stand. Barad-dûr collapsed to ruin and Sauron was finally defeated.

Appearance

The Dark Tower was described as existing on a massive scale so large it was almost surreal, although Tolkien does not provide much detail beyond its size and immense strength. Since it had a "topmost tower" (the location of the Window of the Eye, from which the Eye of Sauron gazed out over Middle-earth), it presumably had multiple towers[2]. It is otherwise described as dark and surrounded in shadow, so that it could not be clearly seen.

Barad-Dûr was constructed mainly of metal. 'Adamant' usually refers to diamond, but it probably has the more general meaning of 'hard, unbreakable substance'. From the main gate of the Tower, that was made of steel, a causeway ran out into the plain of Gorgoroth, across a mighty bridge. We also know that lava from Mount Doom was channeled back across that plain to Barad-dûr.

Tolkien probably leaves details of the Tower's construction vague intentionally, as it was hidden by a cloud of shadow and darkness at all times. Frodo and Sam saw Barad-dûr as they journeyed to Mount Doom: '...rising black, blacker and darker than the vast shades amid which it stood, the cruel pinnacles and iron crown of the topmost tower of Barad-dûr...'[3]

Portrayal in adaptations

2001-3: Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings: In the Lord of the Rings movies by Peter Jackson, Richard Taylor and his design team built a 9 foot high miniature ("big-ature") of Barad-dûr for use in the film. Using the size scale for the model implemented for the films, the Dark Tower is depicted as being over 1500 meters (5,000 feet) tall.

The Return of the King film also shows Barad-dûr as clearly visible from the Black Gate of Mordor. Even granting its enormous size, it was located one hundred miles away and to the east of the Gate, and behind the inner mountain ridges of Udûn so Aragorn's army would probably not have been able to see it. In the film version, the geography of Mordor seems generally to have been compressed somewhat, perhaps for artistic reasons related to rendering such complex stories in a visual medium. In the case of the Black Gate scene, having Barad-dûr visible from the Gate means that the army can see the Eye of Sauron staring at them.

See also

References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Breaking of the Fellowship"
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "Mount Doom"
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "Mount Doom"