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| location=[[Moria|Khazad-dûm]], [[Belegost]], [[Nogrod]], [[Lonely Mountain|Erebor]], [[Iron Hills]], [[Glittering Caves]], [[Grey Mountains]], [[Blue Mountains]], [[Gundabad]], [[Rhûn]]
 
| location=[[Moria|Khazad-dûm]], [[Belegost]], [[Nogrod]], [[Lonely Mountain|Erebor]], [[Iron Hills]], [[Glittering Caves]], [[Grey Mountains]], [[Blue Mountains]], [[Gundabad]], [[Rhûn]]
 
| affiliation=[[Union of Maedhros]], [[Last Alliance of Elves and Men]]
 
| affiliation=[[Union of Maedhros]], [[Last Alliance of Elves and Men]]
| rivalry=[[Elves]], [[Orcs]]
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| rivalry=[[Elves]]
 
| language=[[Khuzdul]] ([[Dwarvish]]), [[Iglishmêk]] (sign language), [[Westron]], [[Sindarin]]<ref name="S10">{{S|10}}</ref>
 
| language=[[Khuzdul]] ([[Dwarvish]]), [[Iglishmêk]] (sign language), [[Westron]], [[Sindarin]]<ref name="S10">{{S|10}}</ref>
 
| people='''Clans:'''<br/>[[Durin's Folk|Longbeards]], [[Firebeards]], [[Broadbeams]], [[Ironfists]], [[Stiffbeards]], [[Blacklocks]], [[Stonefoots]], [[Petty-dwarves]]<br/>'''Groups:'''<br/>[[Dwarves of Belegost|Belegost Dwarves]], [[Dwarves of Erebor|Erebor Dwarves]], [[Dwarves of Khazad-dûm|Khazad-dûm Dwarves]],<br/> [[Dwarves of Nogrod|Nogrod Dwarves]],<br/> [[Dwarves of the Blue Mountains|Blue Mountain Dwarves]],<br/> [[Dwarves of the Grey Mountains|Grey Mountain Dwarves]],<br/> [[Dwarves of the Iron Hills|Iron Hill Dwarves]]
 
| people='''Clans:'''<br/>[[Durin's Folk|Longbeards]], [[Firebeards]], [[Broadbeams]], [[Ironfists]], [[Stiffbeards]], [[Blacklocks]], [[Stonefoots]], [[Petty-dwarves]]<br/>'''Groups:'''<br/>[[Dwarves of Belegost|Belegost Dwarves]], [[Dwarves of Erebor|Erebor Dwarves]], [[Dwarves of Khazad-dûm|Khazad-dûm Dwarves]],<br/> [[Dwarves of Nogrod|Nogrod Dwarves]],<br/> [[Dwarves of the Blue Mountains|Blue Mountain Dwarves]],<br/> [[Dwarves of the Grey Mountains|Grey Mountain Dwarves]],<br/> [[Dwarves of the Iron Hills|Iron Hill Dwarves]]
 
| members=[[Durin]], [[Gimli]], [[Thorin]], [[Dáin Ironfoot]], [[Azaghâl]], [[Mîm]], [[Balin]]
 
| members=[[Durin]], [[Gimli]], [[Thorin]], [[Dáin Ironfoot]], [[Azaghâl]], [[Mîm]], [[Balin]]
| lifespan=c. 250-350 years<ref name=PMAiv>{{PM|Aiv}}</ref>  
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| lifespan=c. 200-350 years<ref name="LOTRProjectStats">{{webcite|author=Emil Johansson|articleurl=http://lotrproject.com/statistics/#lifeexpectancy|articlename=Lord of the Rings in Statistics|website=[http://lotrproject.com/ Lord of the Rings Project]|accessed=15 April 2018}}</ref>
 
| distinctions=Stocky; bearded; never bald; especially hardy and loyal; notoriously stubborn
 
| distinctions=Stocky; bearded; never bald; especially hardy and loyal; notoriously stubborn
 
| height=4.5 - 5 feet (1.35 - 1.52 m) tall
 
| height=4.5 - 5 feet (1.35 - 1.52 m) tall
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* '''[[Longbeards]]''', ''Durin's Folk'', originally from [[Gundabad]].
 
* '''[[Longbeards]]''', ''Durin's Folk'', originally from [[Gundabad]].
* '''[[Firebeards]]''' and '''[[Broadbeams]]''', originally from the [[Blue Mountains]].
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* '''[[Firebeards]]''' and '''[[Broadbeams]]''', originally from [[Mt. Dolmed]].
 
* '''[[Ironfists]]''' and '''[[Stiffbeards]]''', originated in the [[East]].
 
* '''[[Ironfists]]''' and '''[[Stiffbeards]]''', originated in the [[East]].
 
* '''[[Blacklocks]]''' and '''[[Stonefoots]]''', originated in the [[East]].
 
* '''[[Blacklocks]]''' and '''[[Stonefoots]]''', originated in the [[East]].
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===Years of the Trees and First Age===
 
===Years of the Trees and First Age===
Sometime after the Elves had awakened at [[Cuiviénen]], the Seven Fathers of the Dwarves were released from their stone chambers. The eldest of them, called Durin, wandered until he founded the city of [[Moria|Khazad-dûm]] in the natural caves beneath three peaks: [[Baranzinbar]], [[Zirakzigil]], and [[Bundushathûr]]. The city, populated by the Longbeards or [[Durin's Folk]], grew and prospered continuously through Durin's life (which was so long that he was called Durin the Deathless, also a reference to the belief by his people that he would be reincarnated seven times).  
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Sometime after the Elves had awakened at [[Cuiviénen]], the Seven Fathers of the Dwarves were released from their stone chambers. The eldest of them, called Durin, wandered until he founded the city of [[Khazad-dûm]] in the natural caves beneath three peaks: [[Baranzinbar]], [[Zirakzigil]], and [[Bundushathûr]]. The city, populated by the Longbeards or [[Durin's folk]], grew and prospered continuously through Durin's life (which was so long that he was called Durin the Deathless, also a reference to the belief by his people that he would be reincarnated seven times).  
  
 
Far to the west of Khazad-dûm, the great dwarvish cities of [[Belegost]] and [[Nogrod]] were founded in [[Ered Luin]] (the Blue Mountains) during the [[Years of the Trees]], before the arrival of the Elves in [[Beleriand]]. The [[Dwarves of Belegost]] were the first to forge mail of linked rings, and they also traded weaponry with the Sindar and carved the [[Menegroth|Thousand Caves of Menegroth]] for the Elf king [[Thingol]]. In Nogrod, the Smith [[Telchar]] forged [[Narsil]] and [[Angrist]], two of the most fateful weapons in the history of Arda, as well as the famed [[Dragon-helm]] of [[Dor-Lómin]].
 
Far to the west of Khazad-dûm, the great dwarvish cities of [[Belegost]] and [[Nogrod]] were founded in [[Ered Luin]] (the Blue Mountains) during the [[Years of the Trees]], before the arrival of the Elves in [[Beleriand]]. The [[Dwarves of Belegost]] were the first to forge mail of linked rings, and they also traded weaponry with the Sindar and carved the [[Menegroth|Thousand Caves of Menegroth]] for the Elf king [[Thingol]]. In Nogrod, the Smith [[Telchar]] forged [[Narsil]] and [[Angrist]], two of the most fateful weapons in the history of Arda, as well as the famed [[Dragon-helm]] of [[Dor-Lómin]].
  
It is said that some Dwarves in the far [[East]] had fallen under the [[Shadow]] and were of evil mind when the ancestors of the [[Edain]] had encountered them.<ref>{{PM|XNotes}}, #28</ref>
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It is said that some Dwarves in the far [[East]] had falledn under the [[Shadow]] and were of evil mind when the ancestors of the [[Edain]] had encountered them.<ref>{{PM|XNotes}}, #28</ref>
  
 
The [[Dwarves of the Blue Mountains]] fought against the forces of Melkor during the first age, and the Dwarves of Belegost were the only people able to withstand dragon-fire in the [[Battle of Unnumbered Tears]], when [[Lord of Belegost|Lord]] [[Azaghâl]], who died in the battle, stabbed Glaurung, the first dragon. The [[Dwarves of Nogrod]] fought against Melkor as well. However, they slew [[Thingol]] out of greed and stole the [[Silmaril]] they had been charged to set into the necklace called [[Nauglamír]]. A number of retaliatory actions ensued, and the Nogrod army was destroyed by a force of [[Laiquendi]] and [[Ents]]. Both dwarf kingdoms would eventually be destroyed, along with nearly all of Beleriand, after the [[War of Wrath]], with the dwarvish refugees mainly resettling in Khazad-dûm.
 
The [[Dwarves of the Blue Mountains]] fought against the forces of Melkor during the first age, and the Dwarves of Belegost were the only people able to withstand dragon-fire in the [[Battle of Unnumbered Tears]], when [[Lord of Belegost|Lord]] [[Azaghâl]], who died in the battle, stabbed Glaurung, the first dragon. The [[Dwarves of Nogrod]] fought against Melkor as well. However, they slew [[Thingol]] out of greed and stole the [[Silmaril]] they had been charged to set into the necklace called [[Nauglamír]]. A number of retaliatory actions ensued, and the Nogrod army was destroyed by a force of [[Laiquendi]] and [[Ents]]. Both dwarf kingdoms would eventually be destroyed, along with nearly all of Beleriand, after the [[War of Wrath]], with the dwarvish refugees mainly resettling in Khazad-dûm.
  
During those times of war in Beleriand, the [[Dwarves of Khazad-dûm]] prospered in relative peace colonizing the [[Iron Hills]] and the [[Grey Mountains]] and traded with the ancestors of the [[Northmen]].<ref>{{PM|Relations}}, pp. 302-303</ref>
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During those times of war in Beleriand, the Longbeard [[Dwarves of Khazad-dûm]] prospered in relative peace colonizing the [[Iron Hills]] and the [[Grey Mountains]] and traded with the ancestors of the [[Northmen]].<ref>{{PM|Relations}}, pp. 302-303</ref>
  
 
===Second Age===
 
===Second Age===
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Of the people of Middle-earth, Dwarves are the most resistant to corruption and influence of Morgoth and later Sauron. The seven rings of Power of the dwarves did not turn them to evil, but it did amplify their greed and lust for gold. It is said that very few wilfully served the side of darkness.<ref name="Other">{{App|Other}}</ref>
 
Of the people of Middle-earth, Dwarves are the most resistant to corruption and influence of Morgoth and later Sauron. The seven rings of Power of the dwarves did not turn them to evil, but it did amplify their greed and lust for gold. It is said that very few wilfully served the side of darkness.<ref name="Other">{{App|Other}}</ref>
  
In the First Age, it is said that some [[Men]] had met Dwarves of the [[East]] who had fallen under the [[Shadow]] and were of evil mind and were distrustful of their race.<ref name=pmxnotes/>{{rp|n. 28}} Of the Seven Houses, few fought on either side during the [[War of the Last Alliance]] at the end of the Second Age, and it's known that none from the House of Durin ever fought on the side of evil.<ref name=rings>{{S|Rings}}</ref>
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In the First Age it is said that some [[Men]] had met Dwarves of the [[East]] who had fallen under the [[Shadow]] and were of evil mind and were distrustful of their race.<ref name=pmxnotes/>{{rp|n. 28}} Of the seven houses few fought on either side during the [[War of the Last Alliance]] at the end of the Second Age, and it's known that none from the House of Durin ever fought on the side of evil.<ref name=rings>{{S|Rings}}</ref>
  
 
During the early parts of the Third Age (or at least in legends of the previous), it is known that in some places wicked dwarves had made alliances with [[orcs]].<ref>{{H|Hill}}</ref> It is suggested by Tolkien in some of his notes that of the dwarves that turned to wickedness they most likely came from the Dwarves of the far eastern mansions (and perhaps some of the nearer ones) came under the Shadow of Morgoth and turned to evil. It is, however, unlikely if these refer to [[Dwarves of the Iron Hills]] (the most eastern known stronghold of the Dwarves).<ref name=pmxnotes/>{{rp|n. 28}}
 
During the early parts of the Third Age (or at least in legends of the previous), it is known that in some places wicked dwarves had made alliances with [[orcs]].<ref>{{H|Hill}}</ref> It is suggested by Tolkien in some of his notes that of the dwarves that turned to wickedness they most likely came from the Dwarves of the far eastern mansions (and perhaps some of the nearer ones) came under the Shadow of Morgoth and turned to evil. It is, however, unlikely if these refer to [[Dwarves of the Iron Hills]] (the most eastern known stronghold of the Dwarves).<ref name=pmxnotes/>{{rp|n. 28}}
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As creations of Aulë, they were attracted to the substances of Arda and crafts. They mined and worked precious metals throughout the mountains of Middle-earth. They were considered unrivalled in arts such as smithing, crafting, metalworking, and masonry, even by the [[Noldor]].<ref name=S2>{{S|2}}</ref>
 
As creations of Aulë, they were attracted to the substances of Arda and crafts. They mined and worked precious metals throughout the mountains of Middle-earth. They were considered unrivalled in arts such as smithing, crafting, metalworking, and masonry, even by the [[Noldor]].<ref name=S2>{{S|2}}</ref>
  
The Dwarves were the greatest miners ever to exist in [[Middle-earth]], building immense halls under mountains where they built their cities. They built many famed halls including [[Menegroth]], the fairest dwelling of any king that has been east of the [[Sea]],<ref name=S2/> [[Nargothrond]],<ref name=return>{{S|Return}}</ref> [[Khazad-dum]], the grandest mansions of the Dwarves,<ref name="S10" /> the [[Elvenking's Halls]],<ref group="note">In the ''[[Lord of the Rings]]'', it is stated by [[Gimli]] that the Dwarves aided in the making of [[Thranduil]]'s halls. However, in the ''[[Unfinished Tales]]'', it is stated that Thranduil's halls "were not to be compared with [[Menegroth]]. He had not the arts nor wealth nor the aid of the Dwarves."</ref><ref>{{TT|Road}}</ref> and the [[Kingdom Under the Mountain]].
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The Dwarves were the greatest miners ever to exist in [[Middle-earth]], building immense halls under mountains where they built their cities. They built many famed halls including the [[Menegroth]], the fairest dwelling of any king that has been east of the Sea, [[Khazad-dum]], the grandest mansions of the Dwarves,<ref name="S10" /> the [[Elvenking's Halls]], and the [[Kingdom Under the Mountain]].
  
 
In the darkness of [[Arda]] already the Dwarves wrought great works for even from the first days of their Fathers they had marvellous skill with metals and with stone; but in that ancient time iron and copper they loved to work, rather than silver and gold.<ref name="S10" />
 
In the darkness of [[Arda]] already the Dwarves wrought great works for even from the first days of their Fathers they had marvellous skill with metals and with stone; but in that ancient time iron and copper they loved to work, rather than silver and gold.<ref name="S10" />
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===Lifespan===
 
===Lifespan===
The lifespan of Dwarves was varied depending on their "breed".<ref name=PMAiv/>  The [[Longbeards]] were particularly long-lived,<ref name=PMAiv/> but by the Third Age, their lifespan was diminished and they lived, on average, 250 years.<ref name=PMAiv/> The [[Kings of Durin's Folk]] named "Durin" were particularly long-lived.<ref name=PMAiv/> Occasionally they would live up to 300 years of age, and [[Dwalin]] reached the rare lifespan of 340 years (comparable to a Middle Man living to 100).<ref name=PMAiv/>
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The lifespan of Dwarves was varied depending on their ancestry. The Longbeards were particularly long-lived, but by the Third Age their lifespan was diminished and they lived, on average, 250 years. Until they were around 30 years of age, Dwarves were considered too young for heavy labour or war (hence the slaying of Azog by [[Dain Ironfoot]] at age 32 was a great feat). By the age of 40, Dwarves were hardened into the appearance that they would keep for most of their lives. Between the approximate ages of 40 and 240, most Dwarves were equally hale and able to work and fight with vigour. They took on the appearance of age only about ten years before their death, wrinkling and greying rapidly, but never going bald. Occasionally they would live up to 300 years of age, and [[Dwalin]] reached the rare lifespan of 340 years (comparable to a Middle Man living to 100).<ref name=PMAiv>{{PM|Aiv}}</ref>
 
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Until they were around 30 years of age, Dwarves were considered too young for heavy labour or war (hence the slaying of Azog by [[Dain Ironfoot]] at age 32 was a great feat). By the age of 40, Dwarves were hardened into the appearance that they would keep for most of their lives. Between the approximate ages of 40 and 240, most Dwarves were equally hale and able to work and fight with vigour. They took on the appearance of age only about ten years before their death, wrinkling and greying rapidly, but never going bald.  
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Although Dwarves did not suffer from diseases, corpulence could affect them. In prosperous circumstances, many grew fat by the age of 200 and became physically inept.<ref name=PMAiv>{{PM|Aiv}}</ref>
 
Although Dwarves did not suffer from diseases, corpulence could affect them. In prosperous circumstances, many grew fat by the age of 200 and became physically inept.<ref name=PMAiv>{{PM|Aiv}}</ref>
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*"[http://lingwe.blogspot.se/2013/02/did-tolkien-coin-plural-dwarves.html Did Tolkien coin the plural “dwarves”?]" by [[Jason Fisher]]
 
*"[http://lingwe.blogspot.se/2013/02/did-tolkien-coin-plural-dwarves.html Did Tolkien coin the plural “dwarves”?]" by [[Jason Fisher]]
  
{{notes}}
 
 
{{references}}
 
{{references}}
 
{{Dwarvenclans}}
 
{{Dwarvenclans}}

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