|Dominions||lands east of and including Rhûn; Rhovanion; March of Maedhros; Hithlum|
|Languages||presumably numerous; different from Common Speech|
|Average height||shorter than Númenóreans|
|Skin color||Swarthy in the First Age|
|Distinctions||Alliance with Sauron; use of the war-wagons (Wainriders and Balchoth)|
|Lifespan||shorter than Númenórean|
|Members||Khamûl, Easterlings (First Age) (Brodda, Lorgan, Ulfang, Uldor, Ulfast, Ulwarth, Bór, Borlach, Borlad, Borthand)|
Centuries later, after Dagor Bragollach, tribes of Men joined the Edain in Beleriand, long after their arrival. These Swarthy Men came from the east, probably Eriador and were also called "Easterlings". Two of their leaders were Bór and Ulfang.
In the Second Age Sauron escaped the judgment of the Valar and continued his former master's work, turning the Men of the East and South to evil and dominating them. Under the authority of the Dark Lord, many towns and walls of stone were built, and those under his influence became numerous and armed with iron. To these men, Sauron was feared as a king and god. During the Dark Years Sauron dominated most of the Westlands, and when Sauron was driven back to Mordor, he continued his expansions eastwards gaining servants and worshippers.
After Sauron's defeat in the War of the Last Alliance, these "Wild Men" were released by his tyranny but they still had darkness in their hearts. Evil and restless, they battled against each other and some withdrew to the hated west. Thus they encountered the lands of Gondor and since then, tribes brought trouble periodically with several attacks and migrations. Even some Northmen joined forces with the Easterlings because of greed or because of feuds with their kinsmen.[source?]
Easterlings first enter the records of Gondor in T.A. 490 and Tarostar managed a first victory against them in T.A. 500. In T.A. 541 they invaded Ithilien but Turambar of Gondor destroyed the horde and conquered a new territory in Rhûn for Gondor.
In the following centuries the Easterlings cease, while Gondor was free to extend its borders to the south. That was until the days of Narmacil I when the Easterlings resumed their attacks. In T.A. 1248 an Easterling army marched in the lands between Rhovanion and the Sea of Rhûn. Forces from Gondor - aided by Northmen of Rhovanion - defeated them and destroyed their camps and settlements east of the Inland Sea.
After this defeat the Easterlings disappeared from the Gondorian records for some period, during which Gondor was again occupied with the south and the Corsairs of Umbar.
Gondor was weakened by the Great Plague and the Wainriders defeated the Gondorian army in T.A. 1856, raided the lands of Rhovanion and enslaved its people. Some of these lands eventually were reclaimed by King Calimehtar.
In T.A. 1944 the Wainriders, allied with the Haradrim of Near Harad and the Variags of Khand, managed a brief victory against Gondor, despite the assistance by the Éothéod; eventually they were defeated in their camp during their celebrations.
After this defeat the might of the Wainriders was broken although still held Rhovanion, and they retreated east. Most importantly, King Ondoher and both his sons were slain in that assault, an event that led to the extinction for the line of the Kings of Gondor.
In T.A. 2063 the Necromancer (who was actually Sauron) retreated from Dol Guldur for some centuries. That period was known as the Watchful Peace for the Westlands, but during that time Sauron retreated to the East and managed to create a strong alliance between the various tribes of Easterlings.
The Balchoth were a fierce race southeast of Mirkwood, under orders of Dol Guldur and no doubt related to the Wainriders. In T.A. 2510 they and Orcs overran the plains of Calenardhon and almost destroyed the army of Steward Cirion, but were defeated by the Éothéod.
War of the Ring
The weapons that the Easterlings used were primarily crude, jagged spears, making them especially effective against cavalry, as well as a shorter, odd, glaive-like version used for close combat.
Some like the Wainriders and the Balchoth had large chariots, wagons and wains which they used to run their foes down, as well as live in and used to fortify their camps. During the Battle of the Pelennor Fields, a new group of Easterlings appeared who were bearded and used axes.
The Easterlings of the Third Age appear to correspond to the Oriental people of Eastern and Central Asia, the same way that the Men of the West represent the Europeans, and the Men of Harad represent the people of Africa and the Middle East.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "Of Dwarves and Men"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Ruin of Beleriand and the Fall of Fingolfin"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn", "Amroth and Nimrodel"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn", "Appendix B: The Sindarin Princes of the Silvan Elves"
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion"
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", "The Stewards"
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The House of Eorl", "The Kings of the Mark"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The House of Eorl"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Battle of the Pelennor Fields"