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Glamdring

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John Howe - Gandalf the White 01.JPG
Glamdring
LocationGondolin, various
Owned byTurgon, Gandalf
AppearanceSword with gemstones and runes
"This, Gandalf, was Glamdring, Foe-hammer that the king of Gondolin once wore."
Elrond[1]

Glamdring was a sword, said to have belonged to Turgon, but best known as the weapon of Gandalf during the War of the Ring. It was known in Westron as the Foe-hammer, and Orcs knew it as Beater.

Contents

History

Beater

Glamdring was originally borne by Turgon, the King of Gondolin.[1] He must have wielded it with strength during the Nírnaeth Arnoediad or the Fall of Gondolin, for the Orcs named it "Beater", and fled before it. Even up until the late Third Age, orcs of the Misty Mountains knew of this legendary sword,[2] so it must have done some damage.

The name most likely originated in the Nírnaeth Arnoediad, where it is said that Turgon "hewed his way to the side of his brother".[3] No other tales mention the actions of the sword, and it is unknown what happened to it during the Fall of Gondolin. Turgon perished as the Tower of the King fell on top of him, but of the fate of Glamdring nothing is told.[4]

Survival

The sword survived roughly 6500 years from the Fall of Gondolin in F.A. 510 to its eventual rediscovery in T.A. 2941. In that period, it traveled from Gondolin to a Troll's cave in the Trollshaws of Eriador, far in the East. Much mystery surrounds this feat, but Elrond reasoned that Glamdring (along with Orcrist and Sting) was plunderded from other plunderers, or carried off to the Misty Mountains soon after the Fall of Gondolin.[1]

At Gandalf's side

In May T.A. 2941, Gandalf, Bilbo Baggins and a group of dwarves encountered three trolls in the Trollshaws - William, Bert and Tom. The Trolls captured Bilbo and the Dwarves, but Gandalf destroyed them by exposing them to sunlight. Glamdring, along with Orcrist and Sting, were found in their cave nearby.[5] Gandalf claimed the weapon as his own, amazed by its appearance and inscription. The inscription was set in a script of runes Gandalf did not know; he needed the knowledge of Elrond for that. Elrond translated the runes, and called it by its Mannish name: "Foe-hammer".[1]

Gandalf wielding Glamdring, by Donato Giancola.

Gandalf would use the sword well; its first victim was the Great Goblin. Other Orcs fled as they recognized the sword as "Beater". This means that either some Orcs were at the Fall of Gondolin, or that they had legends about two glowing swords - Beater and Biter.[2] Whether Gandalf used the sword again during the Quest for Erebor is uncertain, though it is likely that he wielded it in the Battle of Five Armies.

Gandalf bore Glamdring at his side when the Fellowship of the Ring left Rivendell in T.A. 3018.[6] He used the blade during the Battle of the Chamber of Mazarbul, and a short time thereafter in the standoff with the Balrog.[7] After the collapse of the bridge, Gandalf and the Balrog fought on to the Endless Stair and Durin's Tower, but in his recollection of the event he does not tell whether he used Glamdring or his staff in the Battle of the Peak.[8]

Gandalf's spirit perished there, but was sent back because his task was not yet complete. He had Glamdring with him when he met the Three Hunters; he gave it to Háma at Edoras, when asked to surrender it.[9] Gandalf would continue to bear it throughout the War of the Ring, and carried it at his side when he, Frodo, Sam, Merry and Pippin arrived at the Prancing Pony in Bree. Gandalf and the Hobbits had seen so much war at the time that wearing a weapon did not seem odd.[10]

Fate

On September 29, T.A. 3021,[11] Gandalf left Middle-earth and sailed into the West.[12] Whether he took Glamdring with him is never mentioned, and is open to debate. It can be argued that he brought it over the Sea, like he did with Shadowfax,[13] and because he had been carrying the sword for over 80 years. There would, however, be little need for a weapon in Valinor, as there was little love left for any weapon in the Blessed Realm after the First Kinslaying.[source?]

Appearance

Glamdring and Orcrist are described in The Hobbit as having "beautiful scabbards and jeweled hilts".[5] They would glow blue in the presence of Orcs. The "sword of Turgon" (not directly identified as Glamdring) had "a white and gold sword in a ruel-bone (ivory) sheath".[14]

Rune inscription

File:Glamdring (Audrey Corman).jpg
Glamdring by Audrey Corman

When he took the sword, Gandalf said he could not read the runes. Elrond did, however. This could be considered strange, because in The Lord of the Rings, Gandalf is portrayed as a person of at least equal wisdom and knowledge to Elrond.

A fitting explanation would be the "Gondolinic Runes", devised by Tolkien in either 1924 or 1930. This set of Runes was first published in 1992.[15] In this script, an inscription "GLAMDRING" would read like "MZ(unknown)ŪNRIM" in Angerthas Moria.[16] The actual inscription remains unclear, however.

In 1960, Tolkien began a complete rewrite of the Hobbit in which he added the fact that Glamdring was covered in dark blood when Gandalf found it, explaining why the runes were unreadable until cleaned by Elrond.[17]

Etymology

The word Glamdring is a Sindarin name meaning Foe-hammer in Westron;[1] it is comprised of two elements. The first element is glam. This word has a long history in Tolkien's mind, but always had evil connotations. In its earliest appearances, it meant "fierce hate",[18] but later, its meaning became "shouting, confused noise", and became (poetically) associated with Orcs (cf. glamhoth).[19] The second element is dring, said to mean "hammer".[19] The sword was also given the crude name Beater by the Orcs.[2]

Portrayal in adaptations

File:Bakshi-lotr.jpg
Glamdring in a promotional image for Ralph Bakshi's The Lord of the Rings.

1968: BBC Radio's The Hobbit:

Glamdring is found in the cave of the trolls, and later named by Elrond. Gandalf himself recounts how it was once borne by the King of Gondolin.[20]

1977: Rankin/Bass' The Hobbit:

Gandalf acquires Glamdring in the trolls' cave. Elrond recognizes the sword at first glance; perhaps he simply deduces the fact that it was Glamdring because he had identified its mate Orcrist just before. After leaving Rivendell, Gandalf notably uses the sword only when rescuing Bilbo and the Dwarves from Goblin-town.

1978: Ralph Bakshi's The Lord of the Rings:

On promotional art, Glamdring is portrayed as an ordinary longsword, with no inscription visible. In the movie itself, it goes unnamed, and is considerably shorter, only a one-handed sword.[21]

1980: Rankin/Bass' The Return of the King:

Gandalf does not use a sword, only his staff.

1981: BBC Radio's The Lord of the Rings:

Glamdring is not named, and the presence of a sword is mentioned only once: when Gandalf has to surrender it to Háma.[22]

2002: Vivendi's The Fellowship of the Ring:

Glamdring is an Elven longsword. It glows with pale light when enemies are near.[23]

2001-3: The Lord of the Rings: The Motion Picture Trilogy:

Glamdring is a name given to the sword of Gandalf in the film's promotional materials, but it is not named in the films. The sword is, according to most replicas, 47 inches (approximately 120 centimeters) long[24], and does not glow blue. When asked, Peter Jackson and Philippa Boyens reacted jokingly that is was due to "budgetary cuts", and they had "not enough blue left".[25]
The rune inscription is engraved in the cross-guard, and adds power to the sword. With this extra power Gandalf was able to defeat Durin's Bane.[26] The actual inscription reads as thus:
"Turgon aran Gondolin tortha gar a matha i vegil Glamdring gûd daedheloth, dam an Glamhoth".
This is Sindarin, and translates to "Turgon, king of Gondolin, wields, has, and holds the sword Glamdring, Foe of Morgoth's realm, Hammer of the Orcs".[26]

2003: Sierra's The Hobbit:

As this game focuses on Bilbo rather than the entire group, Glamdring is never named, and only appears once, when Gandalf and the player (as Bilbo) have to wield off several goblins in the Misty Mountains.[27] An alternative survival theory is also given: the caves in the Trollshaws were - according to Glóin - dug by the Witch-king of Angmar during his reign in the region.[28]

See also


Weapons of Middle-earth
Aeglos · Andúril · Anglachel · Anguirel · Angrist · Aranrúth · Belthronding · Black Arrow · Daggers of Westernesse · Dagmor · Dailir · Dramborleg · Durin's Axe · Glamdring · Grond · Gúthwinë · Gurthang · Herugrim · Morgul blades · Narsil · Orcrist · Red Arrow · Ringil · Sting

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "A Short Rest"
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "Over Hill and Under Hill", "Over Hill and Under Hill"
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Fifth Battle: Nirnaeth Arnoediad"
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of Tuor and the Fall of Gondolin"
  5. 5.0 5.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "Roast Mutton"
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Ring Goes South"
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Bridge of Khazad-dûm"
  8. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "The White Rider"
  9. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "The King of the Golden Hall"
  10. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "Homeward Bound"
  11. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Chief Days from the Fall of Barad-dûr to the End of the Third Age"
  12. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Grey Havens"
  13. J.R.R. Tolkien, Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 268 (dated January 19, 1965)
  14. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Of Tuor and his Coming to Gondolin", note 31
  15. First published in Mythlore 69, pages 20-25 (edited by Paul Nolan Hyde), analysed in issue 70, pages 23-24 (by Carl F. Hostetter). See also J.R.R. Tolkien, "Gondolinic Runes", in Parma Eldalamberon 15 (edited by Christopher Gilson), page 111-113
  16. Lisa Star, "Runes of Gondolin"
  17. J.R.R. Tolkien, John D. Rateliff (ed.), The History of The Hobbit, Return to Bag End, page 799
  18. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Gilson, Patrick H. Wynne (eds.), "Namelist to The Fall of Gondolin", in: Parma Eldalamberon 15 (edited by Christopher Gilson et. al.), page 25
  19. 19.0 19.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Lost Road and Other Writings, "The Etymologies"
  20. The Hobbit (1968 radio series), "Out of the Frying-Pan into the Fire"
  21. The Lord of the Rings (1978 film), "Gandalf Triumphant'
  22. The Lord of the Rings (1981 radio series), "The King of the Golden Hall"
  23. The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (video game), Manual, page 9
  24. The Noble Collection Glamdring, Weaponmasters.com
  25. Peter Jackson, Philippa Boyens, Fran Walsh (eds.), The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring: Special Extended DVD Edition, "A Journey in the Dark", Director Commentary
  26. 26.0 26.1 Chris Smith, The Lord of the Rings: Weapons and Warfare, page 68-69
  27. The Hobbit (2003 video game), "Over Hill and Under Hill"
  28. The Hobbit (2003 video game), "Troll-hole"