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Ithilien

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(added lower Ithilien as a synonym for South Ithilien, because HOME WR uses this synonym in two instances and South Ithilien in one instance)
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==Portrayal in adaptations==
 
==Portrayal in adaptations==
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'''[[1987]]-[[1996|96]]: ''[[Middle-earth Role Playing]]'':'''
 +
:The ''Sea-Lords of Gondor - Pelargir and Lebennin'' campaign contains a detailed map that includes Ithilien. This map shows that Haudh-in-Gwanûr is on the northern shore of the river Poros and is therefore probably in Ithilien rather than Harondor.
  
'''1996: ''[[Middle-earth Role Playing]] Southern Gondor - The Land'':'''
+
:In ''[[Ghosts of the Southern Anduin]]'' adventure module there are four adventures that take place in and around the town of Bar-en-Tinnen (renamed to Bar-en-Dinnen in ''Southern Gondor - The Land'').
:It is mentioned that the Emyn Arnen define the boundary dividing Harithilien (South Ithilien) from Forithilien (North Ithilien) (page 35). Several settlements and sites in Ithilien are mentioned in the MERP module Southern Gondor - The Land in section 4.0 A Gazetteer to Southern Gondor, including the ford and the town lying to the north of the ford of Athrad Poros (page 19), the town of Bar-en-Dinnen (page 20), the region of Harithilien (South Ithilien) with its history page 48-50), a description of the land (page 50-51), the flora and fauna (page 51), its inhabitants (page 51), its politics and power (page 51-52) and its warcraft (page 53), the Emyn Arnen hills (page 35), the Haud-in-Gwanur burial mound(page 59), the Hyarmentië road (page 60), the town of Hyarpendë (page 61), the brige and village of Iant Tinnen (page 62), . It is mentioned that Haud-in-Gwanûr is on the north bank of Athrad Poros (page 59), the Men Ithilien road (page 77), the river Poros (page 90), the river Tinnen (page 98), the tower of Tir Ethraid (page 98).  
+
  
'''1987: ''[[Middle-earth Role Playing]] Sea-Lords of Gondor - Pelargir and Lebennin'':'''
+
:In ''Southern Gondor - The Land'' it is mentioned that the Emyn Arnen define the boundary dividing Harithilien (South Ithilien) from Forithilien (North Ithilien).  
:Although this campain module covers Pelargir and Lebennin, it also contains a detailed map that includes Ithilien. This map shows that Haud-in-Gwanûr is on the northern shore of the river Poros and is thus probably in Ithilien and not in Harondor.
+
  
'''1989: ''[[Middle-earth Role Playing]] Ghosts of the Southern Anduin'':'''
+
'''[[1995]]-[[1998|8]]: ''[[Middle-earth Collectible Card Game]]'':'''
:This adventure module contains four adventures that take place in and around the town of Bar-en-Tinnen (renamed to Bar-en-Dinnen in MERP Southern Gondor - The Land).
+
:A card with ''[[Haudh in Gwanûr|Haudh-in-Gwanûr]]'' on it also has Harondor written on the card. However, it is likely that the text Harondor on the card for Haud in Gwanûr was an error.
 
+
'''1995-8: ''[[Middle-earth Collectible Card Game]]'':'''
+
:A Card with ''[[Haudh in Gwanûr|Haudh-in-Gwanûr]]'' on it also has Harondor written on the card. However the Middle-earth Collectible Card Game was made by Iron Crown Enterprises (ICE) who also made Middle-earth Role Playing (MERP), including the MERP Module Southern Gondor - The Land in 1996. Because of that, it is likely that the text Harondor on the card for Haud in Gwanûr was an error.
+
  
 
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[[Category:Gondor]]
 
[[Category:Regions]]
 
[[Category:Regions]]
[[Category:Gondor]]
 
 
[[Category:Sindarin locations]]
 
[[Category:Sindarin locations]]
 
 
[[fr:encyclo/geographie/regions/gondor/ithilien]]
 
[[fr:encyclo/geographie/regions/gondor/ithilien]]

Revision as of 13:17, 11 October 2020

"I shan't call it the end, till we've cleared up the mess." — Sam
This article or section needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of article quality.
Ithilien
Region/fief
Mark Fisher - Ithilien.png
General Information
Other namesArnen
LocationA narrow land between the river Anduin in the west and the mountains of Ephel Dúath in the east
TypeRegion/fief
DescriptionThe fair province of Gondor
RegionsNorth and South
Major townsEmyn Arnen, Henneth Annûn, Minas Ithil
People and History
InhabitantsPrimarily Gondorians (briefly inhabited by Silvan Elves in the Fourth Age)
EventsFall of Minas Ithil
GalleryImages of Ithilien
Ithilien (S, pron. [iˈθiljen]) was a region and fiefdom of Gondor.

Contents

Geography

Ted Nasmith - First Sight of Ithilien

Ithilien was a region of Gondor during most of the time in the history of Gondor. Its borders were probably the Nindalf in the north, the Ephel Dúath in the east, the river Poros in the south, and the river Anduin in the west.[1][2] The region was further divided into North and South Ithilien. The division was probably at the river Morgulduin or at the east-west-road from Osgiliath to Minas Morgul.[3] The Emyn Arnen were probably located in South Ithilien (lower Ithilien).[4][5]

Ithilien was a sheltered region. It was shielded from the east by the Ephel Dúath, protected from the north by the Emyn Muil, open to the southern airs and the moist winds from the sea [6]

Small woods of resinous trees, fir, cedar, cypress, groves and thickets of tamarisk, terebinth olive trees, bay,[7] great ilexes of huge girth, ash-trees and giant oaks[8] grew in Ithilien. There were also junipers, myrtles, thymes, sages of many kinds, marjorams, parsleys, and many herbs of forms and scents beyond the garden-lore of Sam. In addition, there were saxifrages, stonecrops, primeroles, anemones, filbert-brakes, asphodel, lilies, roses, irises, water-lilies, briars, eglantines and trailing clematises.[9] Furtermore, grass, celandine and acres populous with the leaves of woodland hyacinths[10] grew in Ithilien.

Lebethron[11] and Culumalda grew especially in the woods around the Field of Cormallen.[12][13]

History

Early History

Historians in Gondor believed that, in the First Age, the Woses reached the region and were the first to cross the Anduin (probably near Cair Andros).[14]

Old records preserved in Gondor indicate that the name Arnen was once used for the larger part of the region during the Second Age.[15] When Elendil and his sons founded the Realms in Exile, Ithilien took its name after his son, Isildur. Of old, its chief city was Minas Ithil, the Tower of the Moon. It was briefly captured by Sauron in S.A. 3429 but was restored. Ithilien was a fair and prosperous land during the Second Age and the first part of the Third Age when Gondor was strong and Mordor deserted.

Invasions by Easterlings and Haradrim

In T.A. 541 Easterlings invaded northern Ithilien and King Rómendacil I was killed .[16] Amon Dîn was used as a fortified outpost of Minas Tirith keeping watch over the passage into North Ithilien from Dagorlad and any attempt by enemies to cross the Anduin near Cair Andros.[17][18] The Tower of Cirith Ungol was also defending Ithilien from attacks from Sauron's remaining servants and stopped them from returning to Mordor, guarding the high pass over the Ephel Dúath. Gondor occupied the fortress until T.A. 1636 when the Great Plague killed large parts of the population. During the plague, most of the people of Osgiliath fled the city for the western dales or the woods of Ithilien.

After the disastrous Battle of the Plains in T.A. 1856 the Gondorian territories north of Ithilien and east of the river Anduin were abandoned by Gondor.[17]

In T.A. 1899, Marhwini warned King Calimehtar that the Wainriders were plotting to raid Calenardhon over the Undeeps. Calimehtar, therefore, provoked the Wainriders out of Ithilien, and his horsemen, joined by a large éored led by Marhwini, drove the Wainriders back.[17]

In T.A. 1944, Wainriders from Rhûn made an alliance with the Haradrim, and a dual attack on Ithilien was launched. While the Wainriders assaulted Ithilien from the north, the armies of the Haradrim crossed the Poros and invaded South Ithilien. The Gondorian Captain Eärnil leading Gondor's inferior Southern Army, defeated the Haradrim, and then turned north, took the Wainriders into surprise and pushed many of them into the swamplands of the Dead Marshes.[19]

Desertion

When Minas Ithil was captured by Mordor in T.A. 2002 after a three year long siege, it was renamed Minas Morgul, the Tower of Black Sorcery, a place of dread, and many of the people that still remained in Ithlien deserted it.[19]

During the Watchful Peace the lords of Morgul had secretly bred the Uruk-hai, and in T.A. 2475 these creatures assailed and overran Ithilien, captured Osgiliath. Boromir defeated the host of Morgul and regained Ithilien. However, from that time on no people dwelt in the ruined city of Osgiliath.[20]

In the days of Steward Túrin II Ithilien was infested by Mordor-orcs and more people fled west over the Anduin; only the hardiest people remained.[20]

In T.A. 2885, Ithilien was invaded in great strength by Haradrim that had occupied South Gondor. With the aid of King Folcwine of Rohan Túrin II won a victory at the Crossings of Poros, though the princes Fastred and Folcred were slain.[16]

Ted Nasmith - Henneth Annun

Most of the remaining people of Ithilien fled across the Anduin to escape further attacks by Uruks from Mordor (T.A. 2901)[16], but Túrin II still kept scouts there, operating out of secret refuges such as Henneth Annûn. Sauron returned to Mordor in T.A. 2951, and the last remaining people of Ithilien fled over the Anduin when Mount Doom erupted in T.A. 2954.[20][16] The Rammas Echor was constructed as part of the now necessary defenses of Gondor after Ithilien fell under the shadow of the Enemy, probably during the days of Steward Ecthelion II.[21][22] The descendants of the people who had dwelt in Ithilien, formed the corps of the Rangers of Ithilien.[23]

War of the Ring

During the War of the Ring, in early March T.A. 3019, Faramir the son of the Steward Denethor, was leading the Rangers of Ithilien to ambush Haradrim who would pass through Ithilien.[24] After that Gollum led Frodo Baggins and Samwise Gamgee through Ithilien on their way to Cirith Ungol and into Mordor, and Faramir allowed them to continue when he was satisfied they were not agents of Sauron.

"Oliphaunt" by Alan Lee

When the Host of the West marched on the Morannon, Mablung and his troops discovered an ambush by Orcs and Easterlings that lay hid in Ithilien. The ambush was quickly turned.[25]

Angus McBride - Ambush

Later History

During the Fourth Age, Ithilien was ruled by the Princes of Ithilien, a line that started with Faramir and Éowyn, who became known as the White Lady of Ithilien. Minas Morgul was not repopulated. As the Prince of Ithilien, Faramir dwelt in a fair new house in Emyn Arnen[26], whose gardens devised by Legolas were renowned.[27]

After the fall of Sauron, around Fo.A. 20,[28] Legolas brought south Elves of Mirkwood, and they dwelt in Ithilien, and it became once again the fairest country in all the Westlands.[29] They stayed in Ithilien for "a hundred years of Men."[28] After King Aragorn died, Legolas built a grey ship and sailed from Ithilien to the West, reportedly taking Gimli with him, and with them left numerous other Elves.[28][29][30]

Etymology

Ithilien is a Sindarin name meaning "land of the moon"[31] reflecting the name of its ruler, Isildur, and its capital Minas Ithil.

It has been suggested that the name consists of the elements Ithil ("moon") + the affix end.[32]

Portrayal in adaptations

1987-96: Middle-earth Role Playing:

The Sea-Lords of Gondor - Pelargir and Lebennin campaign contains a detailed map that includes Ithilien. This map shows that Haudh-in-Gwanûr is on the northern shore of the river Poros and is therefore probably in Ithilien rather than Harondor.
In Ghosts of the Southern Anduin adventure module there are four adventures that take place in and around the town of Bar-en-Tinnen (renamed to Bar-en-Dinnen in Southern Gondor - The Land).
In Southern Gondor - The Land it is mentioned that the Emyn Arnen define the boundary dividing Harithilien (South Ithilien) from Forithilien (North Ithilien).

1995-8: Middle-earth Collectible Card Game:

A card with Haudh-in-Gwanûr on it also has Harondor written on the card. However, it is likely that the text Harondor on the card for Haud in Gwanûr was an error.

References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, "The Rivers and Beacon-hills of Gondor" (edited by Carl F. Hostetter), in Vinyar Tengwar, Number 42, July 2001, p. 17
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "Map of Rohan, Gondor, and Mordor"
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "Map of Rohan, Gondor, and Mordor"
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Ring, "Part Three: Minas Tirith", "IX. The Battle of the Pelennor Fields"
  5. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Ring, "Part Three: Minas Tirith", "XII. The Last Debate"
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "Of Herbs and Stewed Rabbit"
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "Of Herbs and Stewed Rabbit"
  8. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "Journey to the Cross-Roads"
  9. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "Of Herbs and Stewed Rabbit"
  10. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "Journey to the Cross-Roads"
  11. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "Journey to the Cross-Roads"
  12. Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, pp. 625-6 (citing from the Unfinished index)
  13. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Appendix: Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names" (entry for mal-)
  14. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Drúedain"
  15. J.R.R. Tolkien, "The Rivers and Beacon-hills of Gondor" (edited by Carl F. Hostetter), in Vinyar Tengwar, Number 42, July 2001, p. 17
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age"
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan"
  18. Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 510
  19. 19.0 19.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion"
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", "The Stewards"
  21. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "Minas Tirith"
  22. Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 546
  23. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "Of Herbs and Stewed Rabbit"
  24. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "Of Herbs and Stewed Rabbit"
  25. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Black Gate Opens"
  26. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Steward and the King"
  27. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "VII. The Heirs of Elendil"
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Field of Cormallen"
  29. 29.0 29.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "Durin's Folk"
  30. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "Later Events Concerning the Members of the Fellowship of the Ring"
  31. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Unfinished index for The Lord of the Rings", in Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 233
  32. Compound Sindarin Names in Middle-earth at Tolkiendil.com (accessed 20 July 2011)