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Moria

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{{sources}}
 
{{disambig-more|Moria|[[Moria (disambiguation)]]}}
 
{{disambig-more|The Mines of Moria|[[The Mines of Moria (disambiguation)]]}}
 
{{kingdom
 
| image=[[File:The Lord of the Rings - The Motion Picture Trilogy - Moria.jpg|250px]]
 
| name=Moria
 
| pronun=
 
| othernames=Khazad-dûm ([[Khuzdul|K]]), Hadhodrond ([[Sindarin|S]]), Dwarrowdelf
 
| location=Middle of the [[Misty Mountains]], beneath [[Celebdil]], [[Caradhras]] and [[Fanuidhol]]
 
| capital=
 
| towns=
 
| regions=
 
| population=[[Durin's Folk]]
 
| language=[[Khuzdul]], [[Sindarin]], [[Westron]]
 
| govern1=[[King of Khazad-dûm]] (to {{TA|1981}})
 
| govern2=[[Lord of Moria]] ({{TA|2989}}-{{TA|2994|n}})
 
| govern3=
 
| currency=
 
| holiday=
 
| precededby=
 
| event1=Founded by [[Durin]]
 
| event1date=[[First Age]]
 
| event2=Abandoned
 
| event2date={{TA|1981}}
 
| event3=Reclaimed by [[Balin]]
 
| event3date={{TA|2989}}
 
| event4=Defeated
 
| event4date={{TA|2994}}
 
| event5=Restored by [[Durin VII]]
 
| event5date=[[Fourth Age]]
 
| followedby=[[Lonely Mountain]]
 
}}
 
{{quote|Greatest of all the mansions of the Dwarves was Khazad-dûm, the Dwarrowdelf, Hadhodrond in the Elvish tongue, that was afterwards in the days of its darkness called Moria.|[[Of the Sindar]]}}
 
'''Khazad-dûm''' (also known as ''[[Khazad-dûm#Names|Hadhodrond]]'', ''[[Khazad-dûm#Names|Casarrondo]]'' and ''[[Khazad-dûm#Names|Phurunargian]]'', which translate as ''[[Khazad-dûm#Names|Dwarrowdelf]]''), latterly known as '''Moria''' (''The Black Chasm'', ''The Black Pit''), was the grandest and most famous of the mansions of the [[Dwarves]]. There, for many thousands of years, a thriving [[Dwarf realms|Dwarvish community]] created the greatest city ever known.
 
  
It lay in the central parts of the [[Misty Mountains]], tunnelled and carved through the living rock of the mountains themselves. By the [[Second Age]] a traveler could pass through it from the west of the range to the east.
 
== History ==
 
===Foundation===
 
It was founded in very ancient days by [[Durin]], who awoke at [[Gundabad|Mount Gundabad]] in the [[Misty Mountains]]. He came upon the valley [[Azanulbizar]] beneath the mountains. He looked into a shimmering lake and saw a [[Durin's Crown|crown of stars]] reflected in its waters. He named that lake [[Kheled-zâram]], the [[Mirrormere]] and it remained a revered place among Dwarves of all houses ever afterwards, and the [[Durin's Stone]] was erected on the location of that event.<ref>{{FR|Lothlorien}}</ref>
 
 
There, in the caves above, Durin and [[Longbeards|his people]] started the delving and building of the [[Great Gates]] of Khazad-dûm, and the [[First Hall]] leading to a [[Bridge of Khazad-dûm|bridge over a chasm]]. From there began the expansion, both to ''Levels'' above and to ''Deeps'' below, and mines expanding out from the inhabited areas of the city proper.
 
 
===First Age===
 
Durin the Deathless thus became King Durin I of Khazad-dûm and ruled for many years until he was named "Durin the Deathless" until he died during the [[First Age]]. Afterwards, other rulers of Khazad-dûm were sometimes named Durin, as they were considered to be his reincarnations, who the dwarves believed came to live again among his people.<ref name="Durin">{{App|Durin}}</ref>
 
 
As the centuries passed, the descendants of Durin sat upon the throne of Khazad-dûm, and their cavernous city, that was the greatest of all their mansions, and became famous even to the distant west; the [[Elves]] of [[Beleriand]], heard its rumour from the [[Dwarves of the Blue Mountains|Dwarves]] of the [[Blue Mountains]] on their borders.<ref>{{s|10}}</ref>
 
 
===Second Age===
 
{{quote|After the end of the [[First Age]] the power and wealth of [[Moria|Khazad-dûm]] was much increased; for it was enriched by many people and much lore and craft. . .|[[Appendix A]]}}
 
[[Image:J.R.R. Tolkien - Doors of Durin.jpg|thumb|right|Doors of Durin]]
 
 
In c. 40 of the Second Age after Beleriand was destroyed by the [[War of Wrath]], most of the Dwarves of [[Nogrod]] and [[Belegost]] began leaving en masse from their now ruined cities for Khazad-dûm.  The city was enriched not just in numbers, but in the western Houses' skills in smithing, crafting and masonry.  All these factors created a renaissance for Khazad-dûm, and brought its prosperity to its zenith. 
 
 
Also fleeing the destruction, the [[Noldor]] founded a country of their own by the western gate of Khazad-dûm, [[Eregion]]. A rare friendship sprang up between the Dwarves and the Elves of this new land. By that time, Khazad-dûm had expanded so much that it completely traversed the Mountains from east to west, ending to the western rocky cliffs at their base, the [[Walls of Moria]].<ref>{{FR|II4}}</ref> [[Narvi]] with Eregion's ruler, [[Celebrimbor]], constructed the magical [[Doors of Durin|West-gate of Moria]], and indeed Celebrimbor went so far as to present King [[Durin III]] with an Elven [[Rings of Power|Ring of Power]].<ref name="Durin"/>
 
 
The friendship of Khazad-dûm and Eregion came to a sudden end, however, in {{SA|1697}}.  [[Sauron]] [[Sack of Eregion|overran]] the country of the Elves, and despite the best efforts of the Dwarves to help them, he succeeded in destroying Eregion and driving away  the survivors. Durin sent a great force of Dwarves to protect the Doors of Durin, but with the Elves dead or fleeing far away his warriors withdrew and the gates to the city were shut against Sauron, also secluding  the kingdom off from the outside world.<ref name="TA">{{App|TA}}</ref>
 
 
It was also during this time that the Orcs reinvaded the mountains and made war on the Dwarves, [[First Sacking of Gundabad|taking]] [[Gundabad|Mount Gundabad]] from the Kingdom of Durin. 
 
 
Their seclusion was broken for a time with the beginning of the [[War of the Last Alliance]].  The Dwarves of Moria fought alongside the Elves and Men in their campaign to defeat Sauron for the last time.<ref>{{S|Rings}}</ref> With the conclusion of the war the Dwarves went back to their country, and resumed their seclusion from the world.
 
 
===Third Age===
 
 
During this time Khazad-dûm further expanded its treasures, but despite this its numbers began to dwindle. Most of its great wealth was based on the ''[[Mithril]]'' that was found in its mines, and as the centuries passed, the Dwarves mined deeper and deeper for the precious metal. In the year {{TA|1980}}, they dug too deep, and unleashed a nameless terror from the depths beneath the city. The creature wreaked dreadful destruction, and in slaying the  King, [[Durin VI]], became known as [[Durin's Bane]]. In the following year, Durin's son, [[Náin I]], was also lost, and the Dwarves fled their ancient home.
 
 
After millennia as one of the richest cities in [[Middle-earth]], Khazad-dûm stood dark and empty, but for the brooding menace the Dwarves had released. In that time it was given a new name, [[Moria]], the '''Black Pit'''.
 
 
The monster - a Balrog of [[Morgoth]], as was later known - lurked alone in Moria for nearly five hundred years. After that time, the old city of Khazad-dûm began to be peopled again, but not by Dwarves. Orcs from the North began to enter the abandoned city to raid its treasuries, and occupy it. They also began to worship the Balrog as their deity. Soon afterwards, Sauron directed his creatures there, and Moria began to fill with Orcs and Trolls from [[Mordor]]. Though the orcs' numbers were greatly reduced in the [[Battle of Azanulbizar|Battle of Nanduhirion]], fought in the valley beneath Moria's [[Great Gates|East-gate]] in {{TA|2799|n}}, the Balrog could not be bested, and Khazad-dûm remained a place of darkness.
 
 
At some point between {{TA|2845|n}} and {{TA|2950|n}} the [[Wizards|Wizard]] [[Gandalf]] entered the city looking for King Thráin II who had disappeared on journey to Erebor.<ref name=journey>{{FR|Journey}}</ref>
 
 
====Balin's expedition====
 
In {{TA|2989|n}}, there was an attempt by the Longbeards to reclaim their ancient home. The [[Balin's Colony|expedition]] was led by [[Balin]], who had accompanied [[Bilbo Baggins]] on the [[Quest of Erebor]].  He led a [[Balin's Colony|colony]] of Dwarves there from [[Lonely Mountain|Erebor]].  The Colony was successful at first, killing a considerable number of Orcs, taking many of the Eastern halls and finding many lost treasures such as [[Durin's Axe]].  They were however defeated and slain by the Orcs in {{TA|2994|n}}. 
 
 
Possibly at some point after this [[Aragorn]] Chieftain of the Dúnedain entered Moria for some unknown purpose.
 
 
====The Fellowship's passage====
 
When [[Frodo Baggins]] set out from [[Rivendell]] with the [[Fellowship of the Ring|Fellowship]], they at first planned to travel over the Misty Mountains. When they were stopped by heavy snow on [[Caradhras|Mount Caradhras]], they found themselves pursued by wolves and Orcs, and fled into Moria, so as to go under the mountains. There, they found Balin's journal in the [[Book of Mazarbul]] and learned the fate of his expedition. They were then set upon by a host of [[Trolls]] and Orcs, and they discovered that the terror was, in fact, a [[Balrogs|Balrog]] of [[Morgoth]]. Gandalf fought the Balrog on a narrow bridge and succeeded in destroying a section of bridge to make the Balrog fall. As it fell, the Balrog snagged Gandalf's leg with its whip of thongs and pulled him after it, sending them both plunging into the abyss spanned by the bridge. The rest of the Fellowship managed to escape Moria and reach [[Lothlórien|Lórien]] mostly unharmed.
 
 
Unknown to the Fellowship, both Gandalf and the Balrog survived the fall and fought a ferocious battle from the depths of Moria to the mountains above, demolishing the top of the legendary [[Endless Stair]] and a part of the surrounding mountain peak in the process. Gandalf cast down the Balrog upon the mountainside and lived just long enough to see it die, but his story was not yet ended.
 
 
While Gandalf had felled the Balrog, Moria remained a place of evil creatures until the Fourth Age.<ref>{{SD|XI2}}, p. 122</ref>
 
 
====Retaking and Reign of Durin VII====
 
Though little information is given, the retaking of Khazad-dûm by [[Durin VII]] seems to have occurred during the [[Fourth Age]].  He became [[Kings of Durin's Folk|King of Durin's Folk]], and led a final return to the city. He was successful, and long after the War of the Ring, the Dwarves of Durin's line reclaimed their inheritance, and the hammers rang again in their great halls beneath the Misty Mountains until the race of Dwarves ended.
 
 
==Layout==
 
Khazad-dûm was a huge array of chambers, passages, mines, halls, stores and pits. In general, areas were either classed as ''mines'' or ''city''. The mines were working sections of Khazad-dûm whilst the city was the area of habitation.
 
 
The city areas of Khazad-dûm were clustered primarily to the east; these were the oldest parts of the kingdom and had access to the [[Great Gates]]. They were structured into seven Levels and seven Deeps. The Levels stretched above the gate whilst the Deeps were set deeper within the mountain below the level of the East-gate. It is possible that the First Level (on which the Great Gates were set) and the First Deep were highly intertwined.
 
 
The eastern section of the city spaces had also been delved in such a manner as to have light shafts to illuminate their chambers. One example of this is the [[Chamber of Mazarbul]] which was located on the eastern edge of the [[Seventh Level]].
 
 
The mine areas of Khazad-dûm were interlaced with the city spaces, but spread also westward toward the [[Doors of Durin]]. The mines ran deeper and further than any other tunnels within Khazad-dûm, and it is possible that more of the lower Deeps were given over to mining, although this is only conjecture.
 
 
The defined change between ''mines'' and ''city'' can be seen when the [[Fellowship of the Ring|Fellowship]] pass through Moria - there is a marked difference between the early passages and chambers and those of the city structures illuminated by Gandalf.
 
 
Far below Moria, there are abysses, spaces and tunnels not known even by the Dwarves, but known by the Balrog. [[Nameless Things|Unknown beings]] gnaw the earth and make them, far from the knowledge of any lore.
 
 
==Etymology==
 
 
The name ''Moria'' is composed of the [[Sindarin]] elements ''[[mor]]'' "black, dark" and ''[[iâ]]'' "void, abyss".<ref>{{S|Appendix}}, entries ''mor'' and ''iâ''</ref><ref>{{L|297}}, pp. 382-3</ref> Khazad-dûm was so called in [[Sindarin]] by the [[Gwaith-i-Mírdain]], as for them it was but a "Dark Chasm". Although the Dwarves considered it a derogatory name, [[Celebrimbor]] went as far as to write the name "Moria" on the [[West-gate of Moria|West-gate]].{{fact}}
 
 
==Names==
 
 
The name ''Khazad-dûm'' in [[Khuzdul]] means "Dwarves' Mansion(s)". ''Khazâd'' being the plural of ''[[khuzd]]'' "Dwarves" while ''[[dûm]]'' (or possibly rather ''tûm'') a word for "excavation(s), hall(s), mansion(s)" (it is not clear if the second word is in singular or plural form).
 
 
The Elves translated it as '''''Casarrondo''''' ([[Quenya]], name given by the [[Noldor]])<ref>{{WJ|AB}}, p. 389,</ref> or '''''Hadhodrond''''' ([[Sindarin]]). The word ''Hadhodrond'' is composed of the elements ''[[hadhod]]'' (an attempt by the Elves to render ''[[Khazâd]]'', (the Dwarves' name for their own kind, into Elvish sounds) + ''[[rond]]'' ("cavern").{{fact}}
 
 
'''''Phurunargian''''' meaning "'''Dwarrowdelf'''" or "Dwarf-delving" was the [[Westron]] name for Khazad-dûm.<ref name=AppF2>{{App|F2}}</ref><ref name=PEPhurunargian/> The word derives from the [[Sundocarme|root]] PHUR ("to delve") and ''[[narak|narg-]]'' ("dwarf").<ref name=PEPhurunargian>{{PE|17}}, pp. 35, 137</ref> [[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien]] noted that the form ''Phurunargian'' was "archaic" Westron although he did not mention the elements that make it archaic (over a possible vernacular form).<ref>{{HM|N}}, p. 769</ref><ref name=AppF2/>
 
 
==Portrayal in adaptations==
 
'''2001: ''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring]]'':'''
 
:Moria is portrayed prominently in the Theatrical Edition, while Extended Edition gives it even more attention - notably, Mithril is introduced to the audience properly.
 
 
'''2002: [[The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (video game)|''The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring'' (video game)]]:'''
 
:During the Moria levels the player for the most part controls Gandalf, only once is focus switched to Frodo instead.
 
 
'''2004: ''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth]]'':'''
 
:The entire journey through Moria takes place in one level, which can be completed in several minutes. The iconic location are portrayed immediately next to each other and in the end, Gandalf defeats the Balrog and continues journey with the Fellowship.
 
 
'''2008: ''[[The Lord of the Rings Online: Mines of Moria]]'':'''
 
[[File:The Lord of the Rings Online - Moria map.jpg|thumb|Map of Moria from ''[[The Lord of the Rings Online]]''.]]
 
:''Mines of Moria'' was the first major expansion of the game, released in November 2008. Almost the entirety of Moria is present in the game, with players able to freely journey from the West Gate to the East Gate and from the Cliffs of Zirakzigil to the very Foundations of Stone where nameless things dwell.
 
 
:Moria is divided into several major sub-areas, depicted on the map to the right. '''The Great Delving''' lies directly next to the West Gate and links ancient Dwarven mines to palaces, academies and foundries founded during Khazad-dum's glory days. '''Durin's Way''' is the area, where, according to legend, Durin himself first braved the mines before bringing his folk in there. '''Zelem-Melek''' is home to both numerous [[Orcs|Orc]] encampments and the famed [[Twenty-first Hall]]. '''Silvertine Lodes''' refers to the mining area located directly under [[Celebdil|Silvertine]], much like the '''Redhorn Lodes''' are the mining area under the peaks of [[Caradhras#The Redhorn Gate|Redhorn]]. '''The Water-Works''' hosts both a large underground lake and ancient Dwarven gears, wheels and devices that delivered the fresh water throughout the whole kingdom once. '''The Flaming Deeps''' is an area that reeks with fire and where few could survive for long - it appears that [[Durin's Bane]] resided there following his reawakening. '''Nud-Melek''' mostly consists of the [[Second Hall]] and the [[First Hall]]. The '''Foundations of Stone''' are located below the deepest delving of the Dwarves; no light has ever shined there and, as Gandalf recounted, nameless creatures older than the world gnaw at the roots of the mountains.
 
 
:Surprisingly for those seeing it for the first time, Moria in ''[[The Lord of the Rings Online]]'' is very much inhabited. In an original storyline by Turbine, Dwarves from the [[Iron Hills]] sent by [[Dáin Ironfoot]] arrive in Moria shortly after the Fellowship to learn the fate of [[Balin]]'s expedition. With Durin's Bane recently gone, the Orcs and Goblins of Moria are in great disarray, which allows the Dwarves to move in and establish encampments at all major crossroads. Fresh supplies are coming from both East and West gates, preventing the Iron Hill Garrison from being cut off like Balin was. However, the developers noted that they aware that Moria wasn't re-colonized until the [[Fourth Age]] in [[canon]], meaning that at some point in the future of the game the Iron Garrison may be forced to leave the mines.
 
 
'''2009: ''[[The Lord of the Rings: Conquest]]'':'''
 
:Several levels of both good and evil campaigns take place in Moria.
 
 
== See Also ==
 
* [[:Category:Images of Moria|Images of Moria]]
 
 
{{references}}
 
{{FellowshipRoute}}
 
{{durinskings}}
 
[[Category:Sindarin locations]]
 
[[Category:Moria]]
 
[[Category:Cities, towns and villages]]
 
[[de:Khazad-dûm]]
 
[[fi:Moria]]
 
[[fr:encyclo/geographie/villes_tours_et_forteresses/monts_brumeux/khazad-dum]]
 

Revision as of 04:00, 15 November 2017