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|Other names||Curumo, Curunír, the White, Ring-maker, Of many colours, Sharkey|
|Position||Head of the White Council|
|Death||3 November T.A. 3019 |
|Hair color||White with strands of black|
|Clothing||White robes, shimmering with many colours|
|Gallery||Images of Saruman|
- "[Saruman] is great among the Wise. He is the chief of my order and the head of the Council. His knowledge is deep, but his pride has grown with it, and he takes ill any meddling. The lore of the Elven-rings, great and small, is his province. He has long studied it, seeking the lost secrets of their making (....)"
- ― Gandalf, The Shadow of the Past
Saruman the White (Third Age c. 1000 – 3019, existed in Middle-earth for 2019 years) was the first of the order of Wizards (or Istari) who came to Middle-earth as Emissaries of the Valar in the Third Age. He was the leader of the White Council. In Sindarin his name was Curunír, which meant "Man of Skill".
In Valinor, a council was called by Manwë. This was likely in the middle of the Second Age, shortly after the creation of the Rings of Power. It was decided to send five emissaries to Middle-earth. These should be "mighty, peers of Sauron, yet forgo might, and clothe themselves in flesh" — Istari, or Wizards. One of those who went was Curumo (later in Sindarin Curunír, or in Westron Saruman).
Saruman was one of those who volunteered, whereas the last one, Olórin, (later Gandalf) was commanded by Manwë to go. Saruman's jealousy of Gandalf began even here, when Varda said of Gandalf, who went as the third Istar that he was "not the third". Saruman was charged to take Aiwendil with him to please Yavanna, which he did not wish to do, and this led to contempt for the latter Wizard.
Arrival in Middle-earth
When the White Council was formed around T.A. 2463, Saruman was appointed its leader. Even then, he had begun to sense the resurgence of Sauron and to envy and desire his power, and especially his One Ring. Coincidentally, in that same year the One Ring was found by the creature Gollum, drawing the Dark Lord closer to the conflict that would eventually prove Saruman's undoing.
Chief of the White Council
When Saruman returned from his travels into the east of Middle-earth, he spent years in Minas Tirith examining its archives. It is possible that there he surmised that a palantír would still be located in Orthanc. He offered to make Isengard his home and to command the defences of the West. This was welcomed by King Fréaláf of Rohan and Steward Beren of Gondor alike. In T.A. 2759, Saruman was given the Key of Orthanc in the ring of Isengard his abode, hoping that he would prove an important ally. There he became important in the defence of the free lands of the West. In Orthanc he came upon the Orthanc-stone, one of the seven seeing stones, but kept it secret and hidden, particularly from the White Council. He would later betray the Council by concealing his use of it.
In T.A. 2851, the White Council met and Gandalf revealed that the evil presence in Dol Guldur was indeed Sauron and that he had returned, and urged an attack there. Saruman however believed that Sauron would be useful in his quest: allowing Sauron to build up his strength, the One Ring would reveal itself, and Saruman hoped to have sufficient strength to seize it first himself until that event. With this strategy in mind, Saruman overruled Gandalf. It soon became clear that Saruman desired to possess the One Ring himself.
He soon found that Sauron had more knowledge of the possible location of the One Ring than he expected, and in T.A. 2941 he finally consented to an Attack on Dol Guldur against Sauron at which point Sauron retreated to Mordor.
In T.A. 2953, the Wise gathered once more to debate about the Rings of Power. Saruman quieted the Council claiming to have the knowledge that the One Ring was lost forever in the Belegaer. Following their final meeting, Saruman took Isengard for his own and fortified it. Saruman, jealous and afraid of Gandalf, set spies to watch all his movements; thus he discovered the existence of the Shire and noted Gandalf's interest in it, and started sending agents in Bree and the Southfarthing. As Lord of Isengard, Saruman began to bring trouble to Rohan by aiding its enemies. Saruman's corruption was complete when, in circa T.A. 3000, he used the palantír of Orthanc and was enticed by Sauron.
Either at this time or shortly before, Saruman's studies of ring-lore paid off, and he seems to have emulated part of the skill of the Noldor of Eregion and created his own Ring. He probably used this to enhance his skills, and became an even greater enchanter with the power of his voice. It however seems unlikely that his Ring was as powerful as one of the Three Rings of the Elves, let alone the One Ring.
Sauron declared himself openly. In Mordor, he established contact with Saruman through the Ithil-stone his minions had captured from Minas Ithil. Through his jealousy towards Gandalf and his ever-growing pride and arrogance, and through the use of the palantír, wrestling in thought with the Enemy, Saruman became a servant of Sauron's will (although unintentionally, as his hopes were to gain the One Ring for himself).
War of the Ring
At about this time, in an attempt to control Rohan, Saruman bought the allegiance of King Théoden's chief advisor, Gríma, who then counselled the ailing king to do nothing about the steady resurgence of Sauron's armies. Saruman and Gríma's treachery would have crippled Rohan's military might, had not Gandalf interfered a year later and revealed to Théoden his right-hand man's true designs, healing the old king and revitalizing his political and military rule.
He had sent spies to negotiate the purchase of "leaf" from the Shire, in preparation for the war, and also learn of any Hobbits who had departed recently in hopes of finding out who possessed the One Ring.
Saruman did not reveal his true intentions until Gandalf presented him with the discovery and location of the One Ring. On 10 July, T.A. 3018, Gandalf arrived at Isengard. Saruman demanded that Gandalf submit to him and Sauron or fail. Saruman then stood forth as Saruman of Many Colours, and when Gandalf refused to join with him, he held him captive in Isengard.
It must have been during Gandalf's captivity in Orthanc that Saruman began to build his army of Orcs, Dunlendings, and Uruk-hai, since Gandalf came to an as yet undestroyed Isengard. From the pinnacle of the tower Gandalf could see that Saruman was gathering an army of orcs and wolves in his pits and forges. One can speculate that if matters had developed a little more slowly, his puppet Gríma would have gained full control over Rohan, and the Rohirrim would have been enslaved or destroyed.
Saruman's plans likely failed because he, like Sauron, was forced to reveal his hand early by Gandalf's subsequent escape, and therefore he had little time to perfect his plans. As Saruman considered himself "unfallen", he honestly believed he had a chance of converting Gandalf to his side, and felt honestly betrayed by Gandalf when he was refused.
Gandalf later escaped, and so Saruman's treachery became known to the rest of the White Council when Gandalf reported it during the subsequent Council of Elrond.
Saruman soon also betrayed his new master Sauron by lying to the Witch-king when he arrived at Isengard. Sauron had sent the Nazgûl searching for Baggins, who had found the One Ring years before, and the Shire, his home. Saruman pretended to know nothing about the Shire. But the Lord of Morgul and his company did not have the strength to assault the Ring of Isengard. Saruman told them that he believed Gandalf knew the whereabouts of the Ring and the Riders departed.
In September of T.A. 3018 the Nazgûl captured one of his Shire spies who told the Witch-king everything, betraying Saruman, and exposing Saruman's double treachery. They also seized some maps and information about the Shire and Baggins. Caught now between both sides as a known traitor to both, Saruman put all efforts into obtaining the One Ring for himself.
The failure to capture the Ring at Emyn Muil further ruined Saruman's plans, as he was revealed as a traitor to Mordor now as well.
Saruman implemented a strategy of attacking Rohan, endeavouring to kill the King's son Théodred, sending spies to waylay Frodo Baggins on his flight from the Shire, and dispatching raiding parties on likely routes a company of the Ring might take to Gondor. Ironically, one of these parties captured Peregrin Took and Meriadoc Brandybuck and transported them to Fangorn Forest in time to mobilize the Ents. Gandalf also suspected Saruman had found (and destroyed) the remains of Isildur, who had worn the Ring before it had been lost.
Saruman's Shire network failed to capture Frodo Baggins, Gandalf rallied Rohan to victory, Éomer stopped his only partially successful raiding party, and control of Isengard was lost to the Ents. Aware he was utterly defeated, Saruman briefly considered repenting for his deeds, but at the last moment could not go through with it. Whether he had hope he could escape, whether he was too proud to surrender to Gandalf, or whether he simply feared Sauron's retribution for his treachery, Saruman refused to leave the confines of his fortress. Saruman made a final attempt to woo Théoden and Gandalf to his cause but failed: his staff was broken and he was dismissed from the order of the Istari.
Left out of the final stages of the War of the Ring, he eventually managed to convince his captors, the Ents, into letting him leave Isengard, proving that the magic of his voice still remained.Celeborn, Galadriel and the Hobbits on their way to northern Dunland. They found them as traveling beggars and Saruman kicked Gríma to move on, as he exclaimed how he hated his master. Gandalf told Gríma that he was free to leave him but he did not reply. As Saruman was considered powerless, there was little concern for his escape. He then went to the Shire, which his agent Lotho Sackville-Baggins (undisturbed by events elsewhere) had brought under control. Spending his final days as a small-time thug lord in Hobbiton known as Sharkey, he was eventually betrayed and killed by his own servant Gríma on 3 November, T.A. 3019, when even this operation fell apart after Frodo and Samwise Gamgee returned.
Saruman, as a Maia, did not truly die, but his spirit lost its shape (much like Sauron's after the Downfall of Númenor and after his defeat by the Last Alliance). As a discorporated spirit, he should have been called to Mandos, but the tale implies that he was barred from returning. We may speculate that his spirit was left naked, powerless and wandering in Middle-earth (perhaps like Sauron's after the One Ring was destroyed).
In appearance, Saruman was as an old man with black hair. At the end of the Third Age, his hair and beard had turned mostly white — he had only black hairs about his lips and ears. He was tall, his face was long, and his eyes were deep and dark. He would appear in a white cloak, a habit he later changed into a cloak that changed colours as he moved.
He was not actually a Man, or even an Elf (as Men often suspected), but a Maia clothed in flesh — an Istar ((see Origins below). As such, he was immortal and extremely powerful, yet had limits on how far these powers could be used. His two most salient powers were his knowledge and his voice.
Knowledge of the "deep arts" (or magic, such as it is in Middle-earth) was of particular interest to Saruman, especially when relating to power—such as the Rings of Power and the far seeing palantíri. He was also deeply learned in ancient lore regarding powerful kingdoms such as Númenor, Gondor, and Moria.
His voice and speech were extremely convincing, more powerful than mere rhetoric. When he focused this power on a person or a group of people, he could sway their hearts, plant fears and sow lies as he pleased. According to the stature of the listener, this spell could last as long as the speech did, or it could take root in them and last forever. Saruman's voice was so powerful that he was able to convince the Witch-king that he knew nothing of the One-Ring or the Shire. His voice was not hypnotic, however, rather it was persuasive; and the real danger the voice posed to the listener was not them falling into a trance, but agreeing with it.
Aside from his voice, Saruman has other subtle abilities such as giving great speed and motivation to his orcs at a distance and setting his will against all those in his dominion that might oppose him. Aragorn takes note of this ability while tracking the party of orcs holding Merry and Pippin hostage. Saruman also seems to be able to move around totally unheard by others, as there are numerous examples of him using this ability. Several examples include his sneaking up on Aragorn, Gimli and Legolas's camp in The Riders of Rohan, his wholly unheard entrance in The Voice of Saruman and his quiet but sudden appearance to the hobbits in The Scouring of the Shire.
Other powers include knowledge of machinery and chemistry, probably separable from explicit magic (for instance, the "blasting fire" employed by his Uruk-hai army in the battle of Helm's Deep, was probably some kind of explosive). Machinery and engines characterized both his fortified Isengard and his altered Shire. In this, he probably sought to emulate Sauron. His science also extended to biological areas. He is believed to have crossbred Men and Orcs, creating a new race of Orcs unafraid of daylight, the Uruk-hai. His mannish spies in Bree were said to have Orc blood. He also employed birds in his service, although this might also be attributed to Radagast the Brown, ordering them to report to Orthanc, Saruman's stronghold.
Being regarded as more powerful than Gandalf (at least before Gandalf's "rebirth"), it's fair to assume he would also wield explicit magic similar to Gandalf, such as artificial light, locking spells, creating fire, etc.
Saruman, in his desire to imitate Sauron, attemped to forge for himself a Ring of Power. This he wore during the War of the Ring which he revealed when he called himself "Saruman the Ring-maker". He had great knowledge and lore of the magic rings created by Sauron and by the Elven-smiths, though at this time the full art of ring-making was lost and known only to Sauron and so Saruman's knowledge of the craft was incomplete. It is assumed that Saruman's Ring was the equivalent of one of the lesser rings in power and the any details of this power is not mentioned. It is also assumed that it too lost its power, if it had any, when the One Ring was destroyed, since Saruman's craft of ring-making was still based on Sauron's. When Gandalf was given Narya, the Ring of Fire, Saruman learned of the gift and resented it. This may be another reason why Saruman desired to have a ring of his own.
Saruman resembled Gandalf not only in appearance, but originally also somewhat in character, but unlike Gandalf, Saruman was proud. He saw himself as the most powerful of the Istari, expressing clear contempt for Radagast the Brown. Saruman was no fool (though he saw Radagast as one); he realized Gandalf's power, and eventually came to see him as an equal, and later as a superior, much to his distress. He became jealous of Gandalf, eventually convincing himself that Gandalf was scheming against him, which justified his own scheming against Gandalf and the rest of the White Council.
Saruman likely was true to his mission in the beginning, and actually believed in working to stop Sauron, but his pride and later arrogance (as well as his jealousy towards the Gandalf) turned him into a traitor to the cause he had once served. Saruman's betrayal was not sudden, but slowly grew over time, until at last he had convinced himself that he could not have taken any other path, and that it was too late now to repent. This false belief kept him from taking his last chance at redemption, and because he must have realized this he only became more bitter, blaming Gandalf more than anyone else for his own downfall.
Saruman "went mostly among men". He always sought power, and it lay in the hands of the kingdoms of Men.
No records speak of his earliest journeys into the east; after his return he became a servant of Gondor, receiving the keys to Orthanc from Beren as its warden. When Gondor weakened, he claimed Orthanc for his own without any formal declaration (or objection from Gondor), yet remained nominally an ally of Gondor and of Rohan.
When he turned to treachery, Saruman employed men mainly from Dunland, and agents from other lands, turning old grudges into fuel for new hatred. The Dunlendings were enticed with the old stories that they had once lived in Calenardhon before the Strawheads. The Dunlendings became his soldiers and it also seems probable that he used some of them to create Half-orcs.
Gríma Wormtongue played a vital role in Saruman's plans: with Saruman's council Gríma began to weaken the king, estranging him from his other councilors and even his own kin, until Gríma had in effect become the leader of Rohan.
Saruman was once on good terms with the Elves, and was voted in as the leader of the White Council, a group of Elves and Istari united against Sauron.
Saruman had little use for, or interest in, the Elves, who were declining and their lands were few and secretive; although they wielded marvellous powers and two Rings of Power, they were not useful nor accessible for Saruman's ambitions. Also, they succumbed less easily than other races to manipulation.
He also bred Orcs in Isengard, eventually creating crossbreeds of Orcs and Men (probably Dunlendings). This programme apparently also involved feeding these Orcs Man-flesh.
His Uruk-hai army displayed great discipline and fierce loyalty, in addition to the other improvements such as height, strength, endurance and resistance to sunlight. There also appears to have been middle stages between Men and the Uruk-hai, Men with varying degrees of Orkish appearance. These were reported by Pippin and Merry to have been part of Saruman's regular army, but were not Uruk-hai, since the hobbits would have recognized these from their earlier capture.
Saruman's servants called him "Sharkey" both in Isengard and later in the Shire.
Saruman also consulted with Treebeard, learning much old lore that the Ents would have remembered from ancient times. Saruman did not return this favour, but only listened.
The Ents saw Saruman's treachery early, and became very concerned, primarily with Saruman's Orcs felling trees on the edge of Fangorn for use in the furnaces of Isengard—or sometimes for no reason at all.
The Ents also appear to have had a sense of order, how things should be, that Saruman encroached upon. The crossbreeding of Men and Orcs particularly alarmed them, out of proportion to other concerns enemies of Saruman might have had. Also alarming was the pure fact of his treachery — the Istari were supposed to have a special responsibility.
Saruman used the Ents and the Fangorn forest without concern for the consequences. He clearly misjudged the Ents' abilities and will to act. This might not have been as incautious as it seemed, since major contributing factors to the Ent's actions were advice and requests from Gandalf, and concern about the rising power of Sauron (and their wish to support the front-line troops of the war, Rohan and Gondor).
Saruman clearly had the ability to understand the minds of the Ents when he found it useful. He managed to talk Treebeard into setting him free from Orthanc by pushing just the right buttons — Ents dislike the concept of caging up any creature.
The race of Hobbits and their lands seemed too insignificant to interest Saruman: until he took notice of Gandalf's special concern for them. Studying Gandalf made him focus gradually more and more on the Hobbits and The Shire. For a period he actually travelled there in secret, mapping out the lands. Gandalf was aware of this, but at this point only amused.
He began smoking pipe-weed (a habit of the Hobbits that Gandalf had picked up), also in secret. His demand for tobacco opened up trading between The Shire and Isengard, and the power his money could wield there and the corruption it could cause began to fascinate him. Some of his agents went in secret, and some were known to Gandalf and the Rangers.
His anger towards the Hobbits may possibly stem from the attention Gandalf showed them. It certainly strengthened immensely when he discovered that the Hobbits had "conspired" with Gandalf to keep the One Ring from him.
This, and the sudden urgency caused by the Ringwraiths' hunt for the Ring-bearer from The Shire to Rivendell, made him increase his activity in the area, leading to a build-up of power that would lead to virtual conquest of The Shire.
This all came together when Saruman escaped from the Ents and retired to The Shire and his thug regime in place there. It appears he immediately switched the focus of this operation to wanton destruction: pollution, murder, fire, chopping down trees for no reason, a last blow against Hobbits and Gandalf.
Saruman was supposedly eager to go to Middle-earth, against Manwë's counsel. After his 'death' he was apparently barred from returning to Valinor, and therefore was denied reincarnation and condemned to waft away and disappear like so much smoke. Sauron, in origin a Maia of Aulë like Saruman, amazed and frightened him. During the height of his arrogance Saruman thought to supplant Sauron as the Dark Lord, but in the end he found himself meddling with a spirit of far greater power than himself.
Saruman grudgingly brought with him Radagast as a companion from Valinor, at the request of Yavanna, yet still managed to arrive alone, and first. Shortly after, he went into the East with the two Blue Wizards, and later returned alone. There he may have wrought many great works to diminish the influence of the Enemy.
Radagast, even though Saruman scorned him, served Saruman very usefully (and wholly unintentionally, as he admitted "he had just the wit to play the part I set him"—that of persuading Gandalf to come to Isengard). Radagast also sent birds to Saruman and Gandalf to report the different happenings in Middle-earth.
Gandalf also suspected Saruman of plotting to gain the One Ring for himself, and hinted at this at a meeting of the White Council. Gandalf blew nine small smoke rings and one great one that wavered a bit, seeming almost palpable, and yet blew away, symbolizing (almost prophetic of) Saruman's failure in achieving the One for himself.
In general, Saruman must have viewed Gandalf as his only peer, and as such to be feared and treated with (although not necessarily shown) respect. He always kept a watchful eye open for Gandalf's doings, and actually picked up the habit of smoking pipe-weed by sending out spies tailing Gandalf to the Shire.
When matters came to a head, Saruman sought to make Gandalf an ally in his plans. This was probably not just out of practical politics, but also of respect and a sense of companionship and shared destiny. And possibly out of hope, being daunted by the proposition of becoming Sauron's servant alone.
Nevertheless, Saruman exercised more power than Gandalf, even with the ring Narya, as became clear when he placed Gandalf under arrest at the pinnacle of Orthanc. The text does not make it clear whether Saruman lost power or whether Gandalf gained power, but when Gandalf returned as "Gandalf the White", he could summon Saruman at his will, forcibly keep him in his presence, and finally break Saruman's staff (with whatever implications that might have had for Saruman's powers).
Saruman several times came very close to setting aside his pride and to asking Gandalf for pity and help. The closest call came when the Ringwraiths (on their way to the Shire) arrived at Isengard while Gandalf still remained in captivity there. Saruman, realizing his predicament, actually went to seek Gandalf's pardon, only to find his erstwhile captive missing from the top of Orthanc.
Saruman had control over many birds, probably through Radagast. These spied for him and brought him news. In addition, the Orcs Saruman took in his armies had amongst them Wargs, a sort of intelligent demon-wolf.
Saruman is a Mannish translation of Quenya Curumo, his original name in Valinor as a Maia; and Sindarin Curunír which is supposedly the same name (with the ending -ndîr "man"). All names mean "Skilled Man" or "Cunning One" (root curu "skill").
As a scholar, Tolkien would also have been well aware of the name of a similarly-named historic 'head of his order', Jaruman.
Portrayal in Adaptations
- The voice of Saruman is provided by Robert Farquharson.
- Fraser Kerr provided the voice of Saruman. From early on in the production, it was decided that "Saruman" and "Sauron" sounded too much alike, and might confuse viewers. On concept art, Saruman is called "Ruman", but prior to recording, this was changed to "Aruman". However, during recording, it was again changed, to "Saruman". Because of this late change, several instances of "Aruman" remain in the finished film.
- The voice of Saruman is provided by James Arrington.
- Peter Howell played Saruman. Because the series follows a chronological timeline rather than the flashbacks of the books, Saruman's betrayal is brought out much sooner than in the book. Excerpts from The Hunt for the Ring are dramatised to flesh out Gandalf's escape from Isengard, and the Nazgul's pursuit. In the final episode Saruman's death at the hands of Wormtongue at Bag End is included.
2001-03: The Lord of the Rings (film series):
- Saruman was played by Christopher Lee. The film did not depict Saruman's adoption of the title "Saruman of Many Colours". The film also did not include the Scouring of the Shire, but Saruman's last appearance was in Isengard, showing his encounter with Gandalf and Théoden. In the extended edition of The Return of the King, Gríma stabs Saruman in the back, causing him to fall on a spiked wheel below the tower of Orthanc.
- Though Christopher Lee provided the voice of Saruman for many scenes, the only visual appearance of the Wizard of from re-used movie clips, his voice is played over several Gandalf's actions though.
- Saruman is one of the "Hero" units of the Servants of Sauron, the game also depicts his creation of the Uruk-hai.
- Saruman is the main "Hero" unit of Isengard faction, the evil campaign follows his despoilment of both Isengard and the Fangorn Forest, war on Rohan and later conquest of the outlying lands.
- Saruman is still the main "Hero" unit of Isengard faction, but plays no role in the storyline.
- Through frequently referred to in-game since 2007, Saruman made no visual appearance until 2011 and the Rise of Isengard expansion. Many quests in the game display the stretch of the White Hand - Saruman's minions are present in Shire as early as T.A. 3018, as well as Bree-land, Lone-lands, Eregion, Enedwaith, Dunland, Gap of Rohan, outskirts of the Fangorn Forest and even Moria.
- In the storyline of Rise of Isengard Saruman first appears buying the loyalties of the Dunlending clans, bringing with him riches and maintaining a friendly appearance. He also still keeps his affairs in Rohan private, to the point that when a Rohirrim questions the desolation of Nan Curunír and the presence of Trolls in Isengard, the Wizard manages to use his voice to convince him that it was all for the good cause. At one point, traitorous Dunlendings capture the player and send him to Saruman as a gift - once again the Wizard maintains a friendly and noble appearance, trying to discern the location of The Ring, before the player escapes.
- A major storyline is derived from a single line in The Fellowship of the Ring, where Saruman calls himself "Ring-forger". Long having researched the Rings of Power, Saruman sends his minions to pillage what remains of Ring-Forges of Eregion, looking for any knowledge of ancient Elven smiths that have remained here. Using that lore, he constructs a massive Ring-Forge under Isengard, where he creates five lesser rings and a master one to command them. He keeps the master ring to himself and gives the other to his most trusted lieutenants, though none of the mortals are prepared for it and are turned into monstrosities. A large forces of players defeats them one by one, reclaiming lesser rings and later uses those rings to turn upon the master one. In the ensuing fight Saruman's ring is destroyed shortly before the Battle of Hornburg, and with it the lesser ones lose their power.
2012-14: The Hobbit (film series):
- Christopher Lee reprised his role as Saruman. He appears as part of the White Council alongside Gandalf, Galadriel and Elrond. He is skeptical about the appearance of a Necromancer in Dol Guldur. However, when he participates in the attack on Dol Guldur, he sees for himself that Sauron has returned, and says he will take it upon himself to keep an eye on the Dark Lord.
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "The Voice of Saruman"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Valaquenta: Account of the Valar and Maiar According to the Lore of the Eldar"
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Istari"
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Palantíri"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The House of Eorl", "The Kings of the Mark"
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Hunt for the Ring", "Concerning Gandalf, Saruman, and the Shire"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Great Years"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Council of Elrond"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Hunt for the Ring"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "Many Partings"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "Many Partings"
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 81
- ↑ Helge Fauskanger, "Quettaparma Quenyallo", Ardalambion (accessed 20 January 2018)
- ↑ Didier Willis, ed., "Hiswelókë's Sindarin dictionary", Hiswelókë (accessed 20 January 2018)
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Istari"
- ↑ 1978 - The Lord of the Rings Gallery at Ralphbakshi.com (accessed 26 March 2011)
- ↑ "Christopher Lee will star in the Hobbit prequel" dated 8 February 2011, The Telegraph (accessed 21 December 2011)
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