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Kings' Reckoning

The name given to the calendar system used in Númenor throughout the Second Age, and in Gondor and Arnor throughout much of the Third Age. It divided the year into twelve months (properly called astar), and included three days that did not belong to any month: yestarë, loëndë and mettarë. The King's Reckoning lasted until the loss of Eärnur the last King of Gondor. It was revised by Mardil Voronwë, the first Ruling Steward, who replaced it with the system known as the Stewards' Reckoning.[1]


[edit] Structure

The year was divided into twelve months, with three days outside the months. These divisions are given in the table below.

Month number Quenya Sindarin Length English translation Relationship to the Shire Calendar[note 1]
  Yestarë 1 First day 2 Yule
1 Narvinyë Narwain 30 New sun Afteryule
2 Nénimë Nínui 30 Watery Solmath
3 Súlimë Gwaeron 30 Windy / wind month[2] Rethe
4 Víressë Gwirith 30 New / young / budding?[3] Astron
5 Lótessë Lothron 30 Flower month Thrimidge
6 Nárië Nórui 31 Sunny[3] 1 Forelithe through 1 Lithe
  Loëndë/Enderi 1/2 Year-middle[4] (Middle days) Mid-year's Day/Overlithe
7 Cermië Cerveth 31 Cutting?[5] 2 Lithe through 30 Afterlithe
8 Úrimë Urui 30 Hot[6] Wedmath
9 Yavannië Ivanneth 30 Fruit giving Halimath
10 Narquelië Narbeleth 30 Sun-fading Winterfilth
11 Hísimë Hithui 30 Misty[7] Blotmath
12 Ringarë Girithron 30 Cold / shivering month Foreyule
  Mettarë 1 Last day 1 Yule

In leap years, loëndë was replaced with two enderi; this occurred in years divisible by 4 but not by 100 (haranyë), resulting in a 366-day year, similar to modern Gregorian calendar leap years. In addition, in years divisible by 1000 loëndë was replaced by three enderi[source?], resulting in a 367-day year. These leap year rules held throughout the Second Age and continued based on the restarted numbering of Third Age years, and the 2-day "millennial additions" continued through T.A. 2000. This calendar was replaced by the Stewards' Reckoning in T.A. 2060.[1]

According to Jim Allan in An Introduction to Elvish, each of the elvish month names has a correspondence to the months of the French Republican Calendar; for example, Nénimë/Pluviôse mean "Rainy", Súlìmë/Ventôse mean "Windy". Jim Allan suggests that Tolkien used this similarity because the French Republican Calendar was based on earlier unrecorded Germanic month names.[8]

[edit] Days of the week

When the Kings' Reckoning was first implemented the Númenóreans used the Elven week of six days. At unspecified points of the Second Age two changes were made; the first being to rename the fourth day Aldúya to Aldëa (Orgaladh in Sindarin) in order to change the dedication to the White Tree, and the second being to insert an extra day, Eärenya (Oraearon), after the fifth day Menelya.[1] Thus, the eventual Númenórean week was as follows:

Quenya Sindarin Dedication
Elenya Orgilion Stars
Anarya Oranor Sun
Isilya Orithil Moon
Aldëa Orgaladh White Tree
Menelya Ormenel Heavens
Eärenya Oraearon Sea
Valanya Orbelain Valar


  1. Based on the statement in Appendix D that the day of the destruction of the One Ring, Shire 25 March in T.A. 3019, "was, however, March 25 in both Kings' and Stewards' Reckoning." This may only apply around the end of the Third Age, since it is unknown if the Shire Calendar incorporated the Kings' Reckoning 2-day "millennial additions" or any of the Stewards' Reckoning additional adjustments.


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix D, "The Calendars"
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, Appendix, s.v. sul
  3. 3.0 3.1 David Salo (2004), A Gateway to Sindarin, Appendix 6
  4. Paul Strack, "Q. loëndë n.", Eldamo - An Elvish Lexicon (accessed 25 September 2019)
  5. Jim Allan (1978), An Introduction to Elvish, p. 29
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, Appendix, s.v. ur
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, Appendix, s.v. hith
  8. Jim Allan (1978), An Introduction to Elvish, p. 151

[edit] External links

  • The Shire Reckoning project, dedicated to simulations and detailed analysis of all the calendars of The Lord of the Rings Appendix D.