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The Tree of Tongues

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The Tree of Tongues is a sketch by J.R.R. Tolkien found in the chapter "The Lhammas" of The Lost Road and Other Writings. It shows the relationship between the multitude of languages described in that section of the book. Three similar sketches entitled Table of the Descent of Tongues are included with the Tengwesta Qenderinwa, some dating later than those in The Lhammas.[1]

The later revisions of the legendarium show a considerably different and a bit simplified history of the languages. For example, we know from The Silmarillion that the Elvish languages do not descend from Valarin, taught to them by Oromë, but from Primitive Quendian, spoken before Oromë found the Elves.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Valarin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Language of the Valarindi
 
 
Oromë
 
Aulë
 
 
 
Melko
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
languages of the Quendi
 
Khuzdul
 
 
 
Orcish languages
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lemberin
 
 
Tongues of Man
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Eldarin
 
Language of the Laiqendi
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Danian
 
Taliska
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
LindarinNoldorinTelerinOssiriandeb
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Qenya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ilkorin
 
 
 
Doriathrin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Falathrin
 
 
 
LindarinKornoldorin
 
 
 
Exilic Noldorin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
MithrimGondolinHimringNarogThralls
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Eldarin (in Valinor)
 
Telerin (in Valinor)
 
Noldorin (in Tol Eressëa)
 
Gnomish

References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Tengwesta Qenderinwa and Pre-Fëanorian Alphabets Part 2", in Parma Eldalamberon XVIII (edited by Christopher Gilson, Arden R. Smith, and Patrick H. Wynne), pp. 28-9, 81