Elves of Mirkwood
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During the First Age, the Valar summoned the first Elves to move with them to Valinor. There were three hosts that first set out to answer the call of the Valar. Of these, the largest host was that of the Teleri. They advanced very slowly, and would often lose sight of the other two, smaller hosts. There was a time, when they reached the river Anduin, one smaller leader of that host, Lenwë, wished to go no further, and he and his people began to live in the forests surrounding the Anduin Vale as the remaining Teleri continued their journey to Valinor. Their descendants were the Silvan elves of Lothlórien and Greenwood the Great.
 Second Age
During the Second Age, many Sindar survivors, who did not sail to the West, did not wish to stay with the Noldor in Lindon and be dominated by them. They travelled eastward from Lindon and eventually ended up in Greenwood the Great, where the Silvan Elves of Nandorin descent lived. The Silvan Elves were morbin but they shared the same Telerin ancestry, and the Sindar longed to experience a more "rustic" and "natural" way of life and fully embraced and adopted their culture and language. Oropher, a Sinda, was taken by them as lord and founded the Woodland Realm with the capital at Amon Lanc.
The Silvan Elves originally lived in the south of Greenwood but over the course of the Age Sauron located to Mordor and started building Barad-dûr in circa S.A. 1000 while the Dwarves of Moria increased their power, and Galadriel and Celeborn came to Lórien. Out of resentment, the Silvan Elves gradually moved north to live around the Emyn Duir.
Oropher joined the Last Alliance by summoning a great army which joined with Amdír's smaller force of Lórien Elves to create one large host of Silvan Elves; the Silvan Elves were strong and brave, but had poor armour and weapons in comparison with the Noldor. Amdír and Oropher were unwilling to submit to the supreme command of Gil-galad, as such they suffered heavier losses in the War of the Last Alliance. In the very first assault upon Mordor, Oropher and other brave and hasty Silvan Elves rushed forward before Gil-galad gave the signal to charge. Oropher was killed while 2/3 of the Woodland army also perished. 
 Third Age
With the return of Sauron around T.A. 1050 southern Greenwood became dangerous and was renamed Mirkwood. Creatures like great spiders came to dwell in Mirkwood and Thranduil's folk retreated to the northeastern corner of Mirkwood, where they fortified themselves near the Forest River.
One day in T.A. 2941 Thranduil and some of his folk were feasting in the woods when they were repeatedly disturbed by a party of Dwarves. After the third disturbance the Elves captured them. Thorin their leader, was brought before Thranduil but did not reveal the reason for their journey through Mirkwood. However the prisoners escaped with the help of a Hobbit, Bilbo Baggins, who escaped captivity by using his magic ring.
After the Dwarves' escape Thranduil sent out messengers, who soon told him about the death of the Dragon Smaug, who had brutalized the Elves for years. He knew about the treasures, which Smaug had hoarded, and so he set out towards the Lonely Mountain with a company of Elves with spears and bows. On the way they met messengers from Bard in Lake-town who was seeking aid for his destroyed town. After the Elves had given food to the Lake-men and had helped them to build shelters against the oncoming winter, they were very surprised when they found out that Thorin and his company had survived Smaugs attacks, had taken possession of the Lonely Mountain and its treasures and that Thorin Oakenshield had claimed the title King under the Mountain.
Bard demanded a part of the treasure for Dale and Lake-town, which Smaug had destroyed, as well as for himself because he had shot the dragon. When Thorin refused to give away parts of the treasure, Thranduil and Bard sieged the mountain and Thorin sent for aid from his cousin Dáin II Ironfoot. After a few days Dain's host approached and fight seemed unavoidable. But in the night Bilbo brought the Arkenstone, a great jewel that Thorin valued above all to him open to negotiations. The next morning Bard and Thranduil entered into negotiations with an angered Thorin, who agreed to pay 1/14 share of the treasure in exchange for the stone. The next day Dain arrived with his forces and although Thranduil was reluctant to start a war over gold, the dwarves proceeded to attack.
At the last moment, when the battle was almost joined between the two sides Gandalf intervened and revealed that while they were bickering amongst themselves, the Orcs of the Misty Mountains and Grey Mountains under Bolg were using the opportunity to march against them. They had been incited by Gandalf's earlier slaying of the Great Goblin, but had now mobilized for a full-scale attack after hearing news of the death of the Dragon and the now relatively unguarded treasure hoard. The three commanders agreed that the Orcs were the enemies of all and previous grievances between them were put on hold in face of the greater threat. So the Battle of Five Armies began.
Thranduil's host was positioned on the southern side of the Mountain, and they were the first to charge. Many Elves were slain and things looked grim when the Eagles arrived on the battlefield. They turned the tide and the battle was won. The victors divided the treasure.
On March 21, T.A. 3018 Aragorn and Gandalf delivered Gollum as a prisoner to Thranduil. He was guarded day and night, but the Elves pitied him and allowed him to climb a tree that stood alone. When one night in June of 3018, Gollum refused to come down, the Elves were attacked by Orcs and Gollum could escape in the confusion. Thranduil sent his son Legolas to Rivendell to inform Elrond, and in the Council of Elrond Legolas was selected as one of the nine members of the Company of the Ring.
On March 15, T.A. 3019, an army of Sauron from Dol Guldur, tasked with destroying the Woodland Realm, attacked Mirkwood. There was a long Battle Under Trees and the woods were set on fire. But in the end Thranduil defeated the invaders.
Because the Shadow over Mirkwood was lifted, Thranduil and Celeborn renamed it Eryn Lasgalen, the Wood of Greenleaves. They divided it up, so that Thranduil received the northern part as far as the Mountains, and Celeborn took the southern part below the Narrows, naming it East Lórien. The wide forest in-between was given to the Beornings and the Woodmen.
After the destruction of Dol Guldur and the cleansing of Mirkwood, Thranduil and the Wood-Elves remained untroubled for many years.
 See also
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "Part Four. Quendi and Eldar: B. Meanings and use of the various terms applied to the Elves and their varieties in Quenya, Telerin, and Sindarin" (pp. 376-7, 380)
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn", "Appendix B: The Sindarin Princes of the Silvan Elves"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Disaster of the Gladden Fields", note 14
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Council of Elrond"
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn", "Appendix B: The Sindarin Princes of the Silvan Elves", pp. 256-7