Tolkien Gateway

William Morris

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==Artistic influence==
 
==Artistic influence==
  
In several illustrations, Tolkien was clearly inspired by the decorative style found in the [[wikipedia:Arts and Crafts Movement|Arts and Crafts Movement]] (of which Morris was the central figure and one of the founders) and the related [[wikipedia:Art Nouveau|Art Nouveau]]. The design philosophy of Morris was to re-introduce traditional craftsmanship by using simple forms and patterns and often medieval, romantic or folk styles of decoration (in reaction to early to the early modern industrial design), a theme which can be seen in some of Tolkien's illustrations from the late 1920s (see, e.g., '[[:File:J.R.R. Tolkien - Tol Sirion (Colored by H.E. Riddett).jpg|Tol Sirion]]'), some of his paintings for ''[[The Hobbit]]'', the ornamental patterns drawn in later years,<ref>{{HM|AI}}, pp. 9-10</ref><ref name=CGMorris/> and his hand-drawn maps of [[Middle-earth]].<ref>Alice Campbell, "Maps", in ''[[J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment]]''</ref>
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In several illustrations, Tolkien was clearly inspired by the decorative style found in the [[wikipedia:Arts and Crafts Movement|Arts and Crafts Movement]] (of which Morris was the central figure and one of the founders) and the related [[wikipedia:Art Nouveau|Art Nouveau]]. The design philosophy of Morris was to re-introduce traditional craftsmanship by using simple forms and patterns and often medieval, romantic or folk styles of decoration (in reaction to early to the early modern industrial design), a theme which can be seen in some of Tolkien's illustrations from the late 1920s (see, e.g., '[[:File:J.R.R. Tolkien - Tol Sirion (Colored by H.E. Riddett).jpg|Tol Sirion]]'), some of his paintings for ''[[The Hobbit]]'', the ornamental patterns drawn in later years,<ref>{{HM|AI}}, pp. 9-10</ref><ref name=CGMorris/> and his hand-drawn maps of [[Middle-earth]].<ref>Alice Campbell, "Maps", in ''[[J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment]]''</ref> It is known that Tolkien owned a copy of Morris' lecture ''Some Hints on Pattern Designing'' (1899).{{webcite|author=|articleurl=http://www.bonhams.com/auctions/20753/lot/355/|articlename=Lot 355. Tolkien, William Morris and Exeter College|dated=12 Nov 2013|website=Bonhams|accessed=19 April 2021}}
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==Bibliography, selected==
 
==Bibliography, selected==
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*[[1889]]: ''[[The Roots of the Mountains]]''
 
*[[1889]]: ''[[The Roots of the Mountains]]''
 
*[[1896]]: ''[[The Well at the World's End]]''
 
*[[1896]]: ''[[The Well at the World's End]]''
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===Translations===
 
===Translations===
 
*1870: [[List of books in Tolkien's library#Völsunga Saga|''Völsung Saga: The Story of the Volsungs and Niblungs, with Certain Songs from the Elder Edda'']] (with Eiríkr Magnússon)
 
*1870: [[List of books in Tolkien's library#Völsunga Saga|''Völsung Saga: The Story of the Volsungs and Niblungs, with Certain Songs from the Elder Edda'']] (with Eiríkr Magnússon)
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
 
 
*{{WP|William Morris}}
 
*{{WP|William Morris}}
 
*[http://www.crisismagazine.com/2013/william-morris-as-inspiration-for-tolkiens-literary-art William Morris as Inspiration for Tolkien’s Literary Art] by Tom Riley
 
*[http://www.crisismagazine.com/2013/william-morris-as-inspiration-for-tolkiens-literary-art William Morris as Inspiration for Tolkien’s Literary Art] by Tom Riley

Revision as of 19:19, 19 April 2021

William Morris in the late 19th century

William Morris (24 March 18343 October 1896) was an English artist and author, who wrote and published poetry, fiction, and translations of ancient and medieval texts throughout his life. J.R.R. Tolkien was influenced by both the artistic and literary work of Morris.

Contents

Literary influence

Literary works by Morris, which Tolkien explicitly stated to have had an impact on his writing, are his translation of the Völsunga Saga,[1], and his novels The House of the Wolfings and The Roots of the Mountains. Tolkien also said in an early letter to Edith that he tried to use some of Morris's literary techniques when writing "The Story of Kullervo".[2][3]

Furthermore, scholars have deduced possible implicit influences from these and several others of Morris's works: The Earthly Paradise (for The Book of Lost Tales),[1] The Roots of the Mountains (for Gollum),[4] The Wood beyond the World (for Lothlórien and Fangorn),[4] and his translation of The Saga of Gunnlaug the Worm-tongue (for Gríma Wormtongue).[5]

Artistic influence

In several illustrations, Tolkien was clearly inspired by the decorative style found in the Arts and Crafts Movement (of which Morris was the central figure and one of the founders) and the related Art Nouveau. The design philosophy of Morris was to re-introduce traditional craftsmanship by using simple forms and patterns and often medieval, romantic or folk styles of decoration (in reaction to early to the early modern industrial design), a theme which can be seen in some of Tolkien's illustrations from the late 1920s (see, e.g., 'Tol Sirion'), some of his paintings for The Hobbit, the ornamental patterns drawn in later years,[6][1] and his hand-drawn maps of Middle-earth.[7] It is known that Tolkien owned a copy of Morris' lecture Some Hints on Pattern Designing (1899)."Lot 355. Tolkien, William Morris and Exeter College" dated 12 November 2013, Bonhams (accessed 19 April 2021)


Bibliography, selected

Fiction


Translations

External links

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Christina Scull and Wayne G. Hammond (2006), The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide: II. Reader's Guide, "Morris, William", pp. 598-604
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 1, (dated October 1914)
  3. Michael W. Perry, "Morris, Williams", in J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment
  4. 4.0 4.1 Tom Shippey, "Introduction", in The Wood beyond the World (Oxford, 1980)
  5. Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 400
  6. Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull, J.R.R. Tolkien: Artist & Illustrator, pp. 9-10
  7. Alice Campbell, "Maps", in J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment