Tolkien Gateway

William Morris

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[[Image:William Morris.jpg|frame|William Morris in the late 19th century]]
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{{author infobox
'''William Morris''' ([[24 March]] [[1834]] [[3 October]] [[1896]]) was an English artist and author, who wrote and published poetry, fiction, and translations of ancient and medieval texts throughout his life. [[J.R.R. Tolkien]] was influenced by both the artistic and literary work of Morris.
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| name=William Morris
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| born=[[24 March]] [[1834]]
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| died=[[3 October]] [[1896]]
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| education=
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| occupation=Author
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| location=England
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}}
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'''William Morris''' was an English artist and author, who wrote and published poetry, fiction, and translations of ancient and medieval texts throughout his life. [[J.R.R. Tolkien]] was influenced by both the artistic and literary work of Morris.
  
 
==Literary influence==
 
==Literary influence==
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==Artistic influence==
 
==Artistic influence==
 
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In several illustrations, Tolkien was clearly inspired by the decorative style found in the [[wikipedia:Arts and Crafts Movement|Arts and Crafts Movement]] (of which Morris was the central figure and one of the founders) and the related [[wikipedia:Art Nouveau|Art Nouveau]]. The design philosophy of Morris was to re-introduce traditional craftsmanship by using simple forms and patterns and often medieval, romantic or folk styles of decoration (in reaction to early to the early modern industrial design), a theme which can be seen in some of Tolkien's illustrations from the late 1920s (see, e.g., '[[:File:J.R.R. Tolkien - Tol Sirion (Colored by H.E. Riddett).jpg|Tol Sirion]]'), some of his paintings for ''[[The Hobbit]]'', the ornamental patterns drawn in later years,<ref>{{HM|AI}}, pp. 9-10</ref><ref name=CGMorris/> and his hand-drawn maps of [[Middle-earth]].<ref>Alice Campbell, "Maps", in ''[[J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment]]''</ref> It is known that Tolkien owned a copy of Morris' lecture ''Some Hints on Pattern Designing'' (1899).<ref>{{webcite|author=|articleurl=http://www.bonhams.com/auctions/20753/lot/355/|articlename=Lot 355. Tolkien, William Morris and Exeter College|dated=12 Nov 2013|website=Bonhams|accessed=19 April 2021}}</ref>
In several illustrations, Tolkien was clearly inspired by the decorative style found in the [[wikipedia:Arts and Crafts Movement|Arts and Crafts Movement]] (of which Morris was the central figure and one of the founders) and the related [[wikipedia:Art Nouveau|Art Nouveau]]. The design philosophy of Morris was to re-introduce traditional craftsmanship by using simple forms and patterns and often medieval, romantic or folk styles of decoration (in reaction to early to the early modern industrial design), a theme which can be seen in some of Tolkien's illustrations from the late 1920s (see, e.g., '[[:File:J.R.R. Tolkien - Tol Sirion (Colored by H.E. Riddett).jpg|Tol Sirion]]'), some of his paintings for ''[[The Hobbit]]'', the ornamental patterns drawn in later years,<ref>{{HM|AI}}, pp. 9-10</ref><ref name=CGMorris/> and his hand-drawn maps of [[Middle-earth]].<ref>Alice Campbell, "Maps", in ''[[J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment]]''</ref> It is known that Tolkien owned a copy of Morris' lecture ''Some Hints on Pattern Designing'' (1899).{{webcite|author=|articleurl=http://www.bonhams.com/auctions/20753/lot/355/|articlename=Lot 355. Tolkien, William Morris and Exeter College|dated=12 Nov 2013|website=Bonhams|accessed=19 April 2021}}
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==Bibliography, selected==
 
==Bibliography, selected==
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*[[1889]]: ''[[The Roots of the Mountains]]''
 
*[[1889]]: ''[[The Roots of the Mountains]]''
 
*[[1896]]: ''[[The Well at the World's End]]''
 
*[[1896]]: ''[[The Well at the World's End]]''
 
  
 
===Translations===
 
===Translations===

Latest revision as of 19:30, 19 April 2021

William Morris.jpg
William Morris
Biographical information
Born24 March 1834
Died3 October 1896
OccupationAuthor
LocationEngland

William Morris was an English artist and author, who wrote and published poetry, fiction, and translations of ancient and medieval texts throughout his life. J.R.R. Tolkien was influenced by both the artistic and literary work of Morris.

Contents

[edit] Literary influence

Literary works by Morris, which Tolkien explicitly stated to have had an impact on his writing, are his translation of the Völsunga Saga,[1], and his novels The House of the Wolfings and The Roots of the Mountains. Tolkien also said in an early letter to Edith that he tried to use some of Morris's literary techniques when writing "The Story of Kullervo".[2][3]

Furthermore, scholars have deduced possible implicit influences from these and several others of Morris's works: The Earthly Paradise (for The Book of Lost Tales),[1] The Roots of the Mountains (for Gollum),[4] The Wood beyond the World (for Lothlórien and Fangorn),[4] and his translation of The Saga of Gunnlaug the Worm-tongue (for Gríma Wormtongue).[5]

[edit] Artistic influence

In several illustrations, Tolkien was clearly inspired by the decorative style found in the Arts and Crafts Movement (of which Morris was the central figure and one of the founders) and the related Art Nouveau. The design philosophy of Morris was to re-introduce traditional craftsmanship by using simple forms and patterns and often medieval, romantic or folk styles of decoration (in reaction to early to the early modern industrial design), a theme which can be seen in some of Tolkien's illustrations from the late 1920s (see, e.g., 'Tol Sirion'), some of his paintings for The Hobbit, the ornamental patterns drawn in later years,[6][1] and his hand-drawn maps of Middle-earth.[7] It is known that Tolkien owned a copy of Morris' lecture Some Hints on Pattern Designing (1899).[8]

[edit] Bibliography, selected

[edit] Fiction

[edit] Translations

[edit] External links

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Christina Scull and Wayne G. Hammond (2006), The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide: II. Reader's Guide, "Morris, William", pp. 598-604
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 1, (dated October 1914)
  3. Michael W. Perry, "Morris, Williams", in J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment
  4. 4.0 4.1 Tom Shippey, "Introduction", in The Wood beyond the World (Oxford, 1980)
  5. Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 400
  6. Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull, J.R.R. Tolkien: Artist & Illustrator, pp. 9-10
  7. Alice Campbell, "Maps", in J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment
  8. "Lot 355. Tolkien, William Morris and Exeter College" dated 12 November 2013, Bonhams (accessed 19 April 2021)