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-nd

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-nd is a toponymical ending in Sindarin, an ending "commonly used in the names of regions or countries". Vowels could be attached to the ending, yielding the forms -and, -end, -ond. In names such as Rohan, the -d was dropped, due to its lack of pronunciation in speech (this also occured also in Anorien and Ithilien).[1][2]

The form also appear as -ian(d), -iann, -ion, -ien.[3]

[edit] Examples

[edit] With a

[edit] With e

[edit] With o

[edit] Etymology

-ian(d) and ultimately -ien are reduced from -iand(a), -iend(e),[4] and said to be derived from PQ yandē "a wide region, or country".[3]

-(i)on appears in later-formed names and is in origin distinct from the above. It is explained to be from root YANA- and/or root YONO.[3]

[edit] Cognates

Relevant endings don't appear in other languages such as Quenya save perhaps the name Hildórien and Calacirian (from Kalakiryande)[5]. However there is the Qenya name Valariande[6] and Ossiriande.[7] The book The Road Goes Ever On gives the Quenya name of Lothlórien as Lóriende.

The above hint that in Quenya the endings were preserved as -iande and -iende, without loss of final -e. On the other hand, Valariande is perhaps non-canon as early Qenya (but consistent to the later rules of phonology); as for Lóriende, it seems to be constructed after the Sindarin name and can not be indicative of Quenya etymology.[source?]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan"
  2. Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 248
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, "Words, Phrases and Passages in Various Tongues in The Lord of the Rings", in Parma Eldalamberon XVII (edited by Christopher Gilson), pp. 42-3, 115
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Words, Phrases and Passages in Various Tongues in The Lord of the Rings", in Parma Eldalamberon XVII (edited by Christopher Gilson) p.37
  5. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Notes and Translations", in The Road Goes Ever On (J.R.R. Tolkien, Donald Swann), p. 70
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part One p.202
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Lays of Beleriand, "III. The Lay of Leithian: Canto I (Of Thingol)", pp. 158-9