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They were originally the Men of the Mountains. Their people descended from the Pre-Númenórean peoples related to the Dunlendings and flourished during the Second Age. They had worshipped Sauron in the Dark Years before the foundation of Gondor.
After Gondor was founded, their King swore allegiance to Isildur and the Dúnedain in the last years of the Second Age. But when the time came for them to fulfil their oath, and fight beside Isildur against their ancient master, they broke their word; they refused to join the Last Alliance, and hid in the mountains.
Isildur cursed them to remain without rest until their oath was fulfilled. Waiting for the Heir of Isildur to appear and grant them the chance to fulfil their word at last, they haunted the caverns beneath the Dwimorberg. It was said that when their wraiths appeared in the valley of Harrowdale that lay in the mountain's shadow, also known as the Paths of the Dead, it was in times of trouble or death.
In the War of the Ring, Isildur's Heir, Aragorn, called on the oathbreakers to fulfil their oath at last. They followed him through the Gondorian lands south of the White Mountains, and at the port of Pelargir they drove away the allies of Sauron in fear. For their aid, Aragorn granted them their freedom, and they vanished at last from the world.
Before breaking their oath, these men were known simply as the Men of the Mountains. Afterward, they were referred to as the Dead of Dunharrow, the Sleepless Dead or just the Dead, the Grey Host, the Shadow Host, the Shadow-men, the Shadows of Men or simply the Shadows.
The "Army of the Dead" was only used in The Lord of the Rings (film series).
 Portrayal in adaptations
- The Dead were originally envisioned as walking skeletons, but this had to be revised after Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl came out and did something similar with its undead hosts. So these dead men are glowing green ghosts. Contrary to the book, the Dead follow Aragorn all the way to Minas Tirith, and cleaned up all Sauron's troops. It is after this that they are ultimately set free.
2007: The Lord of the Rings Online:
- The Oathbreakers of Dunharrow are the inspiration for several other factions of Oathbreakers and other cursed shades, such as former soldiers of Arthedain cursed for betraying Fornost to the forces of Angmar. The King of the Dead was named Rioc. Some of the Dead Men of Dunharrow refused to follow Aragorn, and reaffirmed their allegiance to Sauron. These were known as the Ruthless Dead.