|Realms||Dol Guldur, a subpower of Sauron in Mordor|
|Inhabitants||Necromancer and his servants; Khamûl|
|Etymology||S. dol "hill" + guldur "sorcery"|
|Events||Attack on Dol Guldur, Fall of Dol Guldur|
Dol Guldur was originally known as Amon Lanc ("Bald Hill") in Greenwood the Great. It had been the capital of Oropher's Silvan Elves, who had departed north to the Dark Mountains (later known as the Mountains of Mirkwood).
Somewhere after T.A. 1000, an evil presence took over Amon Lanc. It was in 1050 that a shadow fell upon Greenwood and it began to be called Mirkwood). The hostile entity was known as "the Necromancer" by the peoples. Thranduil son of Oropher led his people over the Forest River, where they remained.
The Council of the Wise long feared the Necromancer might be none other than Sauron himself who secretly regained his powers after his defeat in the War of the Last Alliance. In 2063 Gandalf went to Dol Guldur, and the "Necromancer", not yet powerful, fled to the East so as not to be identified.
A dark shadow and cloud flowed from Dol Guldur whereas a golden mist that came from Lothlórien to the west contended with the darkness coming from Mirkwood. In T.A. 2510 when Eorl the Young was leading his riders to the Battle of the Field of Celebrant he steered his force westward to avoid the phenomenon of the shadow, and they entered the mist.
In 2845 Thráin II, King of Durin's Folk-in-exile and holder of the last of the Seven Rings of the Dwarves, was on his way to the Lonely Mountain. He was captured near the eaves of Mirkwood, imprisoned and tortured in Dol Guldur's dungeons, and his Ring taken from him. In 2850 Gandalf again entered Dol Guldur, found the dying Thráin, and was entrusted with the map and key to give to Thorin, although Thráin could not tell him his own or his son's name before he died. Gandalf confirmed that the Necromancer, the master of Dol Guldur at that time, was Sauron.
Gandalf returned to the White Council and urged an attack on Dol Guldur, but was overruled by Saruman, who secretly had begun searching for the One Ring in the area by then. In T.A. 2941 Saruman finally agreed to an attack, which occurred at the same time as the Quest of Erebor. This was carefully planned by Gandalf, so that Sauron and Smaug could not assist each other, as otherwise they could easily have done. During the attack, Sauron fled to Mordor, his plans now ready.
In the following decades Dol Guldur must have rebuilt some of its power until the War of the Ring, during which its forces made assaults upon the Woodland Realm and Lórien, causing grievous damage to the outlying woodlands. However each time they were driven back by Thranduil and Galadriel who held the power of Nenya; which only Sauron himself could have overcome.
 Other versions of the legendarium
The original name of Dol Guldur was Dol Dúgol, and on Tolkien's first map for The Lord of the Rings the hill was located much farther east than its later location (in square M-15 of Map II). Christopher Tolkien explained that Map II had faint traces of green which suggested that Mirkwood originally extended farther to the east too. The name Dol Dúgol was stricken out and the hill was moved to its later location on this map, but its name became Dol Dúghul before finally changing to Dol Guldur.
 Portrayal in adaptations
|Dol Guldur in adaptations|
- Dol Guldur is depicted as a ruined and abandoned fortress of unknown origin. It features statues of the Nazgûl. Radagast, not Gandalf, enters Dol Guldur. He is attacked by a spirit (possibly the Witch-king), obtains a Morgul blade, and finds that Dol Guldur is occupied by a Necromancer. He then travels to Gandalf to tell him the news and gives him the sword as proof.
- Gandalf enters Dol Guldur to investigate its ruins. There he meets Azog and his army. He tries to escape, but is trapped by the Necromancer, who reveals to Gandalf his true identity. Gandalf is later seen trapped in one of the cages.
- Galadriel enters Dol Guldur in order to rescue Gandalf. Accompanied by Saruman and Elrond they encounter Sauron and the Nine. The Attack begins and Sauron flees to the East.
- Dol Guldur makes appearance during both "Good" and "Evil" campaigns as a site of a major battleground.
- Dol Guldur is commanded by the Mouth of Sauron, not Khamûl. Dol Guldur (or Mordor itself) sent a huge army of Orcs, Haradrim, and Trolls to assault Erebor. The attack fails, and the Mouth of Sauron is killed along with all the attacking force. Dol Guldur is then itself attacked by a combined army of Elves and Dwarves led by Elrond, Arwen, Glorfindel, Glóin, and Dáin Ironfoot. After a long and hard struggle, the Elves and Dwarves finally overrun Dol Guldur and lay waste to the evil that dwelled there, ending Sauron's war campaign in the North once and for all.
- In the Evil Campaign, the Goblins from Dol Guldur eliminate the Elves and the Ents that guard the Forest Road in Mirkwood.
2007: The Lord of the Rings Online:
- Dol Guldur is a central point in the game's second expansion, The Lord of the Rings Online: Siege of Mirkwood. In its storyline, Celeborn and Galadriel organize a military campaign against Dol Guldur while the Fellowship still resides in Lothlorien (not to be confused with the later battle during the War of the Ring). The announced goal is to sow chaos into Orc forces by destroying as many of their troops, weapons and supplies as possible, to delay an inevitable assault upon Lothlorien. The true purpose, however, is to distract the Eye of Sauron from the company departing down the shores of Anduin. An assault by the Golden Host of the Galadhrim is successful despite minor losses and after establishing multiple camps throughout southern Mirkwood arrives at the walls of the fortress itself. However, without the White Lady they do not have the means of bringing down the walls, so the Elves prepare to swiftly fall back beyond Anduin before the main forces of the Enemy arrive. The players can also explore multiple locations within the Fortress, among the the Necromancer's Gate, the Ringwraith's Lair, the Dungeons of Dol Guldur, the chief tower named Barad Guldur and Sammath Gul - the chambers once occupied by the Dark Lord himself.
 See also
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Index of Names"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "An Unexpected Party"
- ↑ "The sins of Middle Earth, Tolkien's use of Allegory". Chapter 6. Greenwood Press. pp. 86.
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Disaster of the Gladden Fields", note 12, p. 280
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Disaster of the Gladden Fields", note 14, p. 280
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn", "Appendix B: The Sindarin Princes of the Silvan Elves", p. 259
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan", p. 298
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Hunt for the Ring", note 1, p. 352
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Great Years"
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Treason of Isengard, "The First Map of The Lord of the Rings", "Map II", p. 305
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Treason of Isengard, "The First Map of The Lord of the Rings", "The original element in the First Map", p. 298