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- "I am afraid I have been far too casual about 'magic' and especially the use of the word; though Galadriel and others show by the criticism of the 'mortal' use of the word, that the thought about it is not altogether casual. But it is a v. large question, and difficult; and a story which . . . is largely about motives""
- ― J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 155
- "For this is what your folk would call magic. I believe; though I do not understand clearly what they mean; and they seem also to use the same word of the deceits of the Enemy"
- ― Galadriel, The Mirror of Galadriel
Although magic in Middle-earth was not explicitly defined by Tolkien, it was a term used by the Hobbits to describe processes and abilities of objects which could not be explained outside of their limited lore and knowledge. For Elves and Wizards, what others might call magic was not something special or different from the natural world, just a part of it that was not immediately visible, leading to more common categorization of things as Seen or Unseen. The Seen aspects of a thing or person are only part of it. Through the power of the One Ring, Frodo Baggins at times saw powerful Elves, such as the High-elf Glorfindel, in their true level of power and radiance that extends into the Unseen.
 Magic by race
 Ainur magic
The Ainur as supernatural or angelic beings could shape the world in terms according to their natures. Melkor, later Morgoth, had great power but he could only mar or corrupt what his brethren had wrought.
Sauron, a lieutenant of Morgoth, was a powerful Maia who used his powers to manipulate his slaves and objects. However, these acts of corruption, putting his will and power into other things and people lessened him as it did his master before him. "Evil is fissiparous. But itself barren." So with each creation or corruption, they themselves were lessened because parts of their power now existed outside of themselves. It was not an unlimited supply. Even the Ainur who resided in Aman had limits. For example, Yavanna could not remake the light of the Two Trees. The only hope for them to be restored would be to reclaim the light captured of them in the Silmarils.
Some Maiar, like Sauron, had power nearly the equal of a Vala so that even Olórin feared him. Whatever lore he shared with the Elves, such as the making of the Rings of Power in Eregion, would have unlocked their own understanding of how to craft the rings with their own innate abilities, which is how the master-smith Celebrimbor was able to create the Three Rings in secret. But the rings that Annatar had a hand in were corrupted and bound to his own power. Any power that Sauron's slaves or servants had was sourced in him. Servants like the Black Númenóreans and the Men who became Nazgûl used this power as sorcery. For example, if Frodo's heart had been pierced with the Morgul-knife, he would have been a wraith and under the Ringwraith's command as they are under Sauron's.
The Istari, the Maiar who came to Middle-earth in the diminished form of men, were tasked to help guide the Free peoples against Sauron. The nature of the Istari was not known to all, and they were known as wise old men. They were called Wizards. In Tolkien's mythology, this term is specifically only used for the Order of the Istari, who are of angelic origin. The word "wizard is a translation of Quenya istar (Sindarin ithron); one of the members of an 'order' (as they called it), claiming to posses, and exhibiting, eminent knowledge of the history and nature of the World."
A member of the race of Men wielding magical powers would be referred to as a sorcerer, whether for good or evil. However, according to Tolkien's Letter 155, the concept of magic in his world did not come from lore or spells, and Men did not have magic. By this definition, lore like knowing the language of an animal, would not be considered magical in Middle-earth, merely knowledgeable. But, it might look like magic to one who did not understand the knowledge.
 Elven magic
Although they knew the powers of the Ainur and were even tutored by them, the Elves did not comprehend the concept of magic as it was used by mortals. Their bodies and spirits worked in harmony and creation came naturally to them. The Elvish "fëa was above all designed to make things in co-operation with the hröa.":332 The Elves were taught arts and crafts by the Valar in Valinor and put dedication and love in every thing they wrought. They were deeply connected to the things they made, "the love of the Elves for their land and their works is deeper than the deeps of the Sea." Due to their near immortality,:212 Elves could reach high levels of mastery in crafts, arts, and lore.
The Rings of Power and lesser rings were objects that would seem magical to the Secondborn; they gave powers of manipulation to the bearer of the One Ring, and some might give the wearer invisibility, which was actually the ability to walk in the Unseen world. Other Elven artefacts were the Palantíri, the Lamps of the Noldor, and the Mirror of Galadriel. Some simpler artefacts were the river-boats of the Galadhrim and the elven ropes, which seemed to have wills of their own.
Galadriel was tutored by Melian when she resided in Doriath, and with her ring Nenya, she was able to enchant and protect the Golden Wood. Elrond wore the ring Vilya which helped him protect his hidden realm of Imladris. In the Third Age, Thranduil was the only Elf-lord who did not have a Great Ring to help him maintain his realm against the Enemy. However, he did have the Enchanted River, which made people fall asleep and dream deeply, and the Elvenking's Halls as his fortress to help protect his people.
Elves had skill with healing and medicine. Though it was natural to them, those who healed often chose not to fight, except at need, to preserve their skill, "for the Eldar deemed that the dealing of death . . . diminished the power of healing.":213 While ordinary for an Elf, it might have felt magical to someone healed by them who did not understand how they were using their fëa (spirit). Glorfindel helped heal Frodo, without seeming to do more than search the wound with his fingers, "Frodo felt the chill lessen in his side and arm; a little warmth crept down from his shoulder to his hand, and the pain grew easier." There were no magic words or chants, and no medicine was applied at that time. He also gave Frodo and his companions a drink of clear liquid, which had no taste, that renewed their strength and vigour.
Elven minstrels, like Finrod Felagund and Lúthien, also had power in their songs.:170-1, 174, 180-1 Finrod strove against Sauron in song and made great progress, but he was overpowered with a dire chant. Lúthien, who was half-maia, was able to use stronger enchantments to disguise herself and Beren, and she mesmerized Morgoth with her singing and dancing.
 Dark magic
Sindarin has two words for dark magic: morgul and guldur. The element gûl literally means "magic lore" or "long study" and the negative connotations include "necromancy" and "sorcery". Môr translates to "dark" or "night" and dȗr means "dark" or "sombre".[note 1] Alone the words are perfectly neutral as the concept of magic itself is neutral in Middle-earth. However, these terms are used in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings such as referring to Dol Guldur or a Morgul-knife, they have negative connotations. Morgul may be referred to as the dark lore and objects produced or influenced through the magic of Sauron and used for evil, which could be shared with his followers, such as the Ringwraiths and Black Númenóreans.
Sauron himself was also known as the Necromancer which indicated that he had power over spirits. The Witch-king of Angmar, who wore a Ring of Power, had the ability to summon the Barrow-wights to the Barrow-downs.
Tolkien stated that Men did not have magic. In that respect, it is an innate skill-set of the Ainur and Elves. Although, as noted elsewhere on this page, there is some evidence in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings that Dwarves may have had some enchantment skill in their crafting, and Númenóreans and their descendants, the Dúnedain, may have been able to imbue their weapons against their enemy, such as with Meriadoc Brandybuck's sword from the Barrows.
 Dwarven magic
The constructions of Dwarves had significant properties which might be seen as magical. An example could be the Doors of Durin which opened by themselves upon saying the word "mellon", without visible machinery or other assistance. However, what appeared magical could also be the technology of Dwarven ingenuity and craftsmanship. The Elven Door was created by the Dwarven craftsman Narvi and inscribed by the Elf-lord Celebrimbor with letters and signs fashioned in ithildin.
Another Dwarven door is seen in The Hobbit. The Back Door of the Lonely Mountain was a hidden, seamless door which had a keyhole that would only be revealed on Durin's Day. The key lines that may infer an enchantment on the door are:
A gleam of light came straight through the opening into the bay and fell on the smooth rock-face. The old thrush . . . gave a sudden trill. There was a loud crack. A flake of rock split from the wall and fell. A hole appeared suddenly about three feet from the ground.
—J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "On the Doorstep"
This appears to be what Tolkien might refer to as magia, or physical magic, because there is a crack and a flake of rock falls off the wall.
 Tolkien's views
J.R.R. Tolkien discussed the operations and moral dimensions of magic in Letter 155 of The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien. Actually, this "letter" is an unsent part of a draft of Letter 154 which may not have been sent because of lingering questions regarding magic in Tolkien's mind (a note at the end of the draft asked about the magic used by the Númenóreans in making swords).
One on hand, it seems to say magic in Middle-earth is an innate ability set of the Ainur and the Firstborn, to the exclusion of other peoples, but on the other, there are traces in Middle-earth of special weapons that are said to have been crafted by Men, such as the dagger wielded by Merry which stabbed the Witch-king. And, as noted above, Dwarves may have had some magic-like abilities in their crafting as well, at least with their doors.
The area of discussion here is the difference between magia and goeteia, with magia (physical magic) usually noted as good and goeteia (charm and conjuring magic) as bad. He wrote, "neither is, in this tale, good or bad (per se), but only by motive or purpose or use. Both sides use both, but with different motives." The evil motive was to use it to dominate free will, for example, the Enemy used his magia to "bulldoze" both people and things and used his goeteia to terrify and subjugate. The Elves and Gandalf sparingly used magia for specific beneficial purposes (like burning pine cones to toss at the Wargs), and their goetic effects were "entirely artistic and not intended to deceive: they never deceive Elves (but may deceive or bewilder unaware Men)." For Elves, the difference was as clear to them as the difference to us between art (fiction, painting, and sculpture) and life.
At the end of the draft noted as Letter 155, he wrote "a difference between the use of 'magic' in this story [The Lord of the Rings] is that it is not to be come by by 'lore' or spells; but it is an inherent power not possessed or attainable by Men as such." While "Aragorn's 'healing' might be regarded as 'magical', or at least a blend of magic and pharmacy and 'hypnotic' processes . . . A. is not a pure 'Man', but at long remove one of the 'children of Lúthien'."
The Númenórean Question: Since this letter draft was unsent, he seemed undecided on the total exclusion of Men from, at least, crafting with the power to create a weapon for a particular enemy. Since Men may not have had the inherent skill to, for lack of a better explanation of what the Ainur and Elves naturally did, weave their own spirit into things or ideas, they may have used spells. That issue opened up the murky, and unaddressed, idea of sorcerers independent of a divine being's influence or artefacts. Alongside the final paragraph of Letter 155, which ended with the explanation that Aragorn was distantly of Lúthien's line, Tolkien wrote this question: "'But the Númenóreans used "spells" in making swords?'":Note 2 He was not sure. However, this discrepancy allows for the hints of sorcery among Men in the Legendarium.
- Essay on magic in Middle-earth by Steuard Jensen
- Principles of Tolkien's Magic by John H. Kim
- Magic In The Third Age at Finduilas's J.R.R. Tolkien Page
- Magic in Middle-earth at tolkien.cro.net
- ↑ 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 155, (dated 25 September 1954)
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "Many Meetings"
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Ainulindalë: The Music of the Ainur"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Morgoth's Ring, "Part Five. Myths Transformed"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Flight of the Noldor"
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Istari"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "Fire and Water" pp. 227-8
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Morgoth's Ring, "Part Four. Athrabeth Finrod ah Andreth: Addit. Silmarillion — Commentary"
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 9.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Mirror of Galadriel"
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Morgoth's Ring, "Part Three. The Later Quenta Silmarillion: (II) The Second Phase: Laws and Customs among the Eldar"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Akallabêth: The Downfall of Númenor"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Of Tuor and his Coming to Gondolin"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Return of the Noldor"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "Queer Lodgings"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "Flies and Spiders"
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "Flight to the Ford"
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of Beren and Lúthien"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "The Last Stage"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Eriador, Arnor, and the Heirs of Isildur"
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Battle of the Pelennor Fields"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "A Journey in the Dark"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "Out of the Frying-Pan into the Fire"