|Conflict: War of the Jewels (Fifth Battle of the Wars of Beleriand)|
|Date: F.A. 472|
|Outcome: Decisive victory for Morgoth, partly due to treachery: depopulation of Hithlum with replacement by Easterlings, occupation of much of Beleriand|
Hosts of the Union of Maedhros: 
Hosts of Angband:
- Main article: Union of Maedhros
In the almost two decades since their defeat in the Dagor Bragollach, the Noldor had lost control over the entire north of Beleriand, and were for the most part reduced to refugees dwelling in Hithlum and Nargothrond. Gondolin was shut up and unknown.
 Opposing Forces and Strategy
Under the Union of Maedhros all the Elves of Beleriand, as well as the Edain, Dwarves, and the newly arrived Easterlings were invited to combine in arms and fight Morgoth. The Union first cleared Beleriand and Dorthonion of Orcs, and then gathered to assault Thangorodrim.
The plan was for Maedhros's host in the east to assault and draw out the army of Angband, after which Fingon's host would attack from the Ered Wethrin, taking the offensive in the west, crushing Morgoth's forces between them.
Under Fingon in the west were gathered the Elves and Men of Hithlum, the Elves of the Falas, the Haladin of Brethil and the companies sent from Nargothrond and the two elves of Doriath, Beleg and Mablung.
Because of the evil deeds of Celegorm and Curufin, two of Maedhros's brothers, Nargothrond would send only a small company of Elves under Gwindor. From Doriath, where Thingol had sworn never to fight beside any son of Fëanor, came only Mablung and Beleg, who did not wish to remain behind. However, Turgon unexpectedly came forth with over ten thousand Elves from Gondolin, doubling the force of the west.
 The Battle
But Morgoth through his spies had learned of the battle plan, and his spy Ulfang, who betrayed the Noldor, delayed Maedhros' attack. A small host of Orcs sallied forth from Angband to provoke the Western host to attack. Within sight of the Ered Wethrin, Gwindor's brother Gelmir, captured during the Dagor Bragollach, was brought forth, and brutally slain. Enraged, Gwindor broke ranks and charged along with his men. From their hidden positions in the eastern hills, Fingon's forces suddenly charged along with them. The Orc host was taken by surprise and swiftly defeated, and the sudden charge of Fingon's army nearly foiled Morgoth's plans; the forces of Gwindor and Fingon pushed forth, reaching Angband itself.
Morgoth shook upon this throne as Gwindor's company pounded at his gates above. They burst through, and slew the guards on the steps of Angband itself, though Morgoth had trapped them. They were then ambushed with hidden forces set about Angband; all of Gwindor's company was slain and Gwindor himself was captured. From clandestine gates around Angband thousands of Orcs erupted suddenly, repulsing the host of Fingon from the walls. The Elven army was driven back in great slaughter, and many Haladin fell fighting in the rearguard.
Turgon, who had withheld his host from the reckless charge, now came upon the Orc host. The phalanx of Turgon broke through the Angband lines, and met with the guard of Fingon.
Finally Maedhros arrived, but before he could make junction with Fingon and Turgon, Glaurung the dragon and Gothmog lord of Balrogs intercepted him. Union forces could yet have prevailed, but Uldor, son of Ulfang and a traitor, turned ranks and attacked Maedhros in the rear, while more of his kin came down from the mountains and attacked from the east. Maglor slew Uldor in single combat, but could not turn the tide of the battle. Under assault from three sides, the eastern host was scattered, and only the valour of the Dwarves of Belegost helped them escape, as their lord Azaghâl and his forces held off Glaurung, allowing the sons of Fëanor to escape into Ossiriand.
Azaghâl and his army fought with fierce iron masks on, and they were able to resist the fire far better than any Elf or Man. Then Glaurung trampled Azaghâl beneath his feet, but Azaghâl ran a dagger through Glaurung's stomach, and the dragon fled in pain. Many of Morgoth's forces retreated with him. In a solemn ceremony the Dwarves picked up their fallen leader, abandoning the battle, and marched him home in a great procession. Their wrath was so great that none troubled them.
All this had not helped the western host, who were attacked by many Orcs under Gothmog. Gothmog cut a path to Fingon and fought him in single combat. Fingon fell under his might, and Húrin begged Turgon to retreat back to Gondolin. Huor and Húrin and the remaining Men of Dor-lómin formed a living wall across the Fen of Serech, buying time for Turgon to escape with most of the surviving Elves of the north. Acting as a rearguard, these Men were almost all slain – Huor fell when his eye was pierced by a poisoned arrow. His brother Húrin fought ferociously to buy his allies time to escape, fighting until his axe withered away. Morgoth had ordered him to be taken alive, however; he killed no fewer than seventy Orcs and Trolls before he became pinned under their corpses, and was later taken prisoner by Gothmog.
 Aftermath and Repercussions
Morgoth's victory was near complete, as he had destroyed all the people of Hithlum and had scattered the sons of Fëanor away from Himring. Morgoth's Orcs razed all of Beleriand except for Doriath, which was still protected by the Girdle of Melian, and sacked the havens of the Falas.
Morgoth betrayed his servants the Easterlings, shutting them in Hithlum under penalty of death, and denied to them the fertile lands of Beleriand. Morgoth's destruction was not entirely complete, however, for Turgon, now High King of the Ñoldor after the death of Fingon, had evaded capture, and his city Gondolin was still unknown to Morgoth. While the Union's attack inflicted fairly heavy losses on Morgoth's forces, this was largely irrelevant compared to how utterly Morgoth had broken the power of so many of his enemies in the battle. His armies would take time to regain their former strength, however, and thus he remained dormant once more for some time, seeking out the hidden city of Gondolin and the last bastion of his enemies. Gwindor himself was one of few prominent survivors of the battle, and was enslaved in Morgoth's mines for fourteen years before finally escaping. He returned and warned the King of Nargothrond that Ulmo had advised against fighting open war with Morgoth; the King did not heed his advice, however, and at the Battle of Tumhalad, followed by the Sack of Nargothrond, the Elves there were completely eradicated.
The Ñoldor ultimately recovered from the battle, but remained hidden within Gondolin away from Morgoth's wrath, where they stayed clandestine and defensively rebuilt their forces. It wasn't until some 38 years after Nirnaeth Arnoediad that Morgoth obtained the location of Gondolin, and besieged it in order to finalize his annihilation of the Ñoldor and to cement his domination of Middle-earth.
Morgoth had personally laid waste to Ard-galen, turning it into a dust-choked wasteland of fire and poisonous gas, known from then on as Anfauglith. It was here that many Elves and Men were slain and thrown into great piles on a hill in the midst of the desolate landscape; referred to as the Hill of Slain by the Elves, grass grew on that hill long after the battle but nowhere else in Anfauglith.
 See also
|Wars of Beleriand|
|First Battle · Dagor-nuin-Giliath · Dagor Aglareb · Dagor Bragollach · Nirnaeth Arnoediad · War of Wrath|
- ↑ Mythlore, Number 51, Volume 14, No.1, 'The Kindreds, Houses and Population of the Elves During the First Age', 1987; Mythlore Template:ISSN, a detailed study of the numbers of Elves. From this 1987 article and from more recently published volumes of The History of Middle-earth, e.g.: Vol. XI, pp. 380-381, pp. 420–423; Vol. XII, p. 307, "two thousand full grown men"; relatively sound estimates can be drawn of the numbers of Elves, Men and Dwarves.
- ↑ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1996), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Peoples of Middle-earth, p. 307
- ↑ Some tales hold that a portion of the warriors of the Folk of Haleth were women, The Peoples of Middle-earth", p. 309: "chieftainess Haleth had been a renowned amazon with a picked bodyguard of women."
- ↑ Tolkien, Silmarillion, p.190.
- ↑ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1986), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Shaping of Middle-earth, p.117
- ↑ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1986), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Shaping of Middle-earth, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, p. 302, "There came afresh a hundred thousand Orcs..."
- ↑ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1984), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Book of Lost Tales, 1, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, p. 241: "Nearly half of all the Gnomes and Men who fought there were slain."
- ↑ The Shaping of Middle-earth, p. 117: "and that day there was a greater slaughter of the servants of Morgoth than there yet had been..." This statement serves as an important point of reference in making estimates as the "great force, but not too great", p. 117; Silmarillion p. 191, "a force seeming great (and yet but a part of all that he had made ready)" destroyed by the host of Fingon has to be of convincing size to accomplish its end and could have hardly been much less than 75,000—100,000 strong. The Lost Road, p. 288: "...he recalled the main hosts of his Orcs...he was dismayed to find how great had been their loss."
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "Index"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Index of Names"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Lost Road and Other Writings, "Part Three: The Etymologies"