William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was an English artist and author, who wrote and published poetry, fiction, and translations of ancient and medieval texts throughout his life. J.R.R. Tolkien was influenced by both the artistic and literary work of Morris.
 Literary influence
Literary works by Morris, which Tolkien explicitly stated to have had an impact on his writing, are his translation of the Völsunga Saga,, and his novels The House of the Wolfings and The Roots of the Mountains. Tolkien also said in an early letter to Edith that he tried to use some of Morris's literary techniques when writing "The Story of Kullervo".
Furthermore, scholars have deduced possible implicit influences from these and several others of Morris's works: The Earthly Paradise (for The Book of Lost Tales), The Roots of the Mountains (for Gollum), The Wood beyond the World (for Lothlórien and Fangorn), and his translation of The Saga of Gunnlaug the Worm-tongue (for Gríma Wormtongue).
 Artistic influence
In several illustrations, Tolkien was clearly inspired by the decorative style found in the Arts and Crafts Movement (of which Morris was the central figure and one of the founders) and the related Art Nouveau. The design philosophy of Morris was to re-introduce traditional craftsmanship by using simple forms and patterns and often medieval, romantic or folk styles of decoration (in reaction to early to the early modern industrial design), a theme which can be seen in some of Tolkien's illustrations from the late 1920s (see, e.g., 'Tol Sirion'), some of his paintings for The Hobbit, the ornamental patterns drawn in later years, and his hand-drawn maps of Middle-earth.
 Bibliography, selected
- 1867: The Life and Death of Jason
- 1888: The House of the Wolfings
- 1889: The Roots of the Mountains
- 1896: The Well at the World's End
- 1870: Völsung Saga: The Story of the Volsungs and Niblungs, with Certain Songs from the Elder Edda (with Eiríkr Magnússon)
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (2006), The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide: II. Reader's Guide, "Morris, William", pp. 598-604
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 1, (dated October 1914)
- ↑ Michael W. Perry, "Morris, Williams", in J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 Tom Shippey, "Introduction", in The Wood beyond the World (Oxford, 1980)
- ↑ Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 400
- ↑ Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull, J.R.R. Tolkien: Artist & Illustrator, pp. 9-10
- ↑ Alice Campbell, "Maps", in J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment