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Tolkien had noted the ambiguity of the word "Celtic" as an arbitrary catch-all term:
- "'Celtic' of any sort is, nonetheless, a magic bag, into which anything may be put, and out of which almost anything may come."
- ― Inauguration speech at the University of Oxford
Celtic influences on the Legendarium
Tolkien claimed knowledge of Celtic languages and legends, however expressed a dislike in Celtic legends and denied that his legendarium is "Celtic".
While several names in the legendarium have Germanic and Old English elements, Tolkien mentioned that the survival of traces of the older language of the Stoors and the Bree-men resembled the survival of Celtic elements in England. Tolkien said to the Dutch Translator, Max Schuchart, that there were "'Celtic' elements in Buckland and East-farthing names."
Celtic analogies with peoples are present mostly relating to Pre-Númenóreans, especially Dunland and the Stoor hobbits, which is evident in placenames such as "Bree" and the personal names of the Bucklanders. According to Paula Marmor, the Celtic elements in Stoorish names represents an earlier language, related to the languages of the Bree-landers.
Other names having (or have been suggested as having) a Celtic influence include:
- ↑ Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (2006), The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide: II. Reader's Guide, pp. 148-52
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays, "English and Welsh"
- ↑ Humphrey Carpenter, J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biography, p. 26
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix F, "On Translation"
- ↑ Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 93
- ↑ Jim Allan (1978), An Introduction to Elvish, "An etymological excursion among the Shire folk"
- ↑ Jim Allan (1978), An Introduction to Elvish, "Giving of names"