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The Black Speech was created by Sauron during the Dark Years to be the sole language of all the servants of Mordor, replacing the many different varieties of Orkish and other languages used by his servants. When Sauron was overthrown at the end of the Second Age the ancient "pure" form was forgotten by all but the Nazgûl. When Sauron returned it was once again made the official language of Barad-dûr. However, a more "debased" form was used by the soldiery of Barad-dûr at the end of the Third Age. The only example given of "pure" Black Speech is the inscription upon the One Ring:
Ash nazg durbatulûk, ash nazg gimbatul,
ash nazg thrakatulûk, agh burzum-ishi krimpatul.
When translated into English, these words form the lines:
One Ring to rule them all, One Ring to find them,
One Ring to bring them all and in the darkness bind them.
These are the first two lines from the end of a verse about the Rings of Power.
In real life, J.R.R. Tolkien created this language with the intention of making it harsh and ugly,[source?]. The Black Speech is one of the more incomplete languages in Tolkien's novels, because the forces of good refuse to utter it.
Tolkien linguist Helge Fauskanger has noted a theory proposed by Russian historian Alexander Nemirovski, that the Black Speech, according to the shape of words, agglutination and grammar, shares many similarities with the ancient Mesopotamian language Hurrian.
Portrayal in adaptations
2001-03: The Lord of the Rings (film series):
- Linguist David Salo used what little is known of the Black Speech to create enough of a language for use in the films. This is usually referred to by Tolkienists as neo-Black Speech.
2012-14: The Hobbit (film series):
- In the 2013 film, "The Hobbit - The Desolation of Smaug", Gandalf showed a promissory note to Thorin. The note that promised payment for Thorin's head was written in "black speech".
- Orkish and the Black Speech - base language for base purposes (Ardalambion)
- Black Speech analysis by Craig Daniel
- Tengwar – Black Speech General Use by Måns Björkman
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix F, "On Translation"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Council of Elrond"
- ↑ Helge Fauskanger, "Orkish and the Black Speech - base language for base purposes", Ardalambion (accessed 12 January 2013)
- ↑ Language in The Lord of the Rings Movie (August 12, 2003) at Elvish.org (accessed 26 December 2010)