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|Dominions||Angmar, Dol Guldur, Minas Morgul|
|Languages||Black Speech, Westron|
|Distinctions||Without physical form|
|Members||Witch-king of Angmar, Khamûl|
Sometime during the Second Age (after year S.A. 1600[note 1]) Sauron gave nine Rings of Power to powerful mortal Men. It is said that three of the Nine were lords of Númenor corrupted by Sauron, and one was a king among the Easterlings.
For many years the bearers used the rings to gain great wealth, prestige and power, becoming "mighty in their day, kings, sorcerers, and warriors of old". The effect of the rings caused their lives to be prolonged, and to see things of the Unseen. But over time their bodily forms faded until they became wraiths entirely, slaves under the domination of Sauron's One Ring.
 Third Age
However around 1050 of the Third Age Sauron returned in the form of a shadow in Greenwood the Great, triggering also the return of his servants. It was around T.A. 1300 when the Lord of the Nazgûl gathered evil Men and founded the Witch-kingdom of Angmar. From there he led Sauron's forces against the mannish kingdom of Arnor in T.A. 1409. He was eventually defeated in battle in T.A. 1975 and returned to Mordor, gathering the other Nazgûl in preparation for the return of Sauron to that realm.
In T.A. 2000, they besieged Minas Ithil and captured it after a two-year siege. The city thereafter became the stronghold of the Nazgûl, from where they directed the rebuilding of Sauron's armies, also acquiring a palantír for the Dark Lord.
Indeed, after his defeat in Dol Guldur, Sauron returned to Mordor in T.A. 2942 and declared himself openly in T.A. 2951. Three of the Nazgûl were sent to his fortress at Dol Guldur to garrison that outpost.
In T.A. 3017 Sauron commanded the Ringwraiths to recover the One Ring of Power from "Baggins of the Shire". Disguised as horse riders clad in black (hence the term Black Riders), they sought out Bilbo Baggins who, as Gollum had revealed, had the One Ring in his possession.
The Dwarves of Erebor spoke of a rider who had come to offer Sauron's friendship and ask about Hobbits. As a token of their friendship he asked for a "trifle", a ring, "the least of rings", that the thief had stolen.[note 2]
The Nazgûl at this point were dependent on their black horses (stolen from Rohan) for transportation. When they were swept away by the waters of the river Bruinen, their horses were killed. The Ringwraiths were forced to return to Mordor to regroup. They reappeared later mounted on flying creatures, at which point they were referred to as Winged Nazgûl.
By the conclusion of the War of the Ring, all of the Nine Nazgûl were destroyed. The Lord of the Nazgûl himself was slain by Éowyn, the niece of King Théoden (with help from Merry, known as "The Magnificent" thereafter) during the Battle of the Pelennor Fields. The remaining eight Ringwraiths attacked the Army of the West during the last battle at the Black Gate. However, when Frodo Baggins put on the ring in the fires of Mount Doom, Sauron ordered the eight remaining Nazgûl to fly with all possible speed to Mount Doom to intercept Frodo. They arrived too late, with the Ring falling into the fire along with the hapless Gollum. The Nazgûl were caught in the firestorm of the erupting mountain and were destroyed.
 Powers and abilities
- "The Nazgûl were they, the Ringwraiths, the Enemy's most terrible servants; darkness went with them, and they cried with the voices of death."
- ― The Silmarillion, "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age"
Given form only through the attire of black cloaks and hauberks of silver mail, their original form was completely gone and invisible to mortal eyes. Their hypnotic eyes could be plainly distinguished from their dark clothing, and in a rage they appeared in a hellish fire. Mortal men could not touch them (unless blessed by weapons or tools of the ancient Elves of the First Age or by the Dúnedain, such as the barrow-blade used by Merry on the Witch-king of Angmar). The Ringwraiths had many weapons, which included long swords of steel and flame, daggers with venomous properties, and black maces of great strength.
Their arsenal of deadly armaments was not confined to physical means; they also had seemingly magical weapons of devastating power. They were surrounded by an aura of terror, which affected all living creatures; their "breath" (called the Black Breath) was poisonous, and their cries caused terror and despair in all who heard them. Some of the Nazgûl appear to have been accomplished sorcerers and used magic to devastating effect. According to Tolkien, though, it was the fear they inspired that was the chief danger:
- "They have no great physical power against the fearless," he wrote, "but what they have, and the fear that they inspire, is enormously increased in darkness"
- ― The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien
The Nazgûl existed mostly in the wraith world (the Unseen), making them extremely difficult to harm. Ordinary weapons would not hurt them, and even weapons of Númenórean manufacture would be destroyed if they passed through the wraith forms of the Nazgûl. They could not, however, interact normally with the material world (the Seen): they needed garments and weapons provided by Sauron to give them form. Consequently, they could be defeated by attacks that destroyed their disguises, forcing them to return to Sauron to receive new ones.
The Nazgûl spread terror in mortal creatures merely by their presence. Only specially trained horses or the fell beasts of Mordor could bear them. They caused panic and despair in their enemies simply by flying overhead, and only individuals of great courage could face them in combat.
They were also poisonous to mortal beings, causing a condition known as the Black Breath. Merely being in the vicinity of one of them could cause disorientation and illness. Intense exposure could be lethal.
The Nazgûl had poor vision in the material world, but they were acutely aware of the beings with a presence in the wraith world, like the wearer of the One Ring and certain Elves, such as Glorfindel. Anyone who could see into the wraith world could see the Nazgûl as they had appeared in their mortal lives.
The Witch-king could also affect matter with his voice, shattering the dagger that Frodo had gotten in the Barrow-downs and weakening the gates of Minas Tirith. Whether other Nazgûl could perform similar feats is unknown.
Only a few of the Nazgûl are named or identified individually. Their leader was the Witch-king of Angmar, and his second in command was named Khamûl. Khamûl was a lord of Easterlings, and was the only Nazgûl known by his name. Three of them were Númenóreans.
 Other names and titles
Among their many names and titles were: the Ringwraiths, the Black Riders, the Fell Riders, the Nine Riders, the Black Wings, the Shadows, the Nine, the Nine Servants of the Lord of the Rings, and the Shriekers.
An Elvish name given for the Ringwraiths is Úlairi. Linguists have remarked that it is a Quenya plural name of unknown meaning and etymology. Michael Martinez, analysing the word, has tentatively suggested that:
Úlairi is a compound formed from Ú + lai + ri with probable meaning of "un (bad or immoral)" + "shadow" + "ones". In other words, the name may mean something like "those who are in/of unnatural shadow".
 Portrayal in adaptations
Four of the Nazgûl on horseback in The Lord of the Rings (1978 film)
A Ringwraith in The Return of the King (1980 film)
The Nazgûl in The Lord of the Rings (film series)
- The Nine are clad in brown and black, and have red eyes. The attack on The Prancing Pony is their deed, not that of any accomplices. After the attack, they cast off their hoods, revealing the black armour and hideous masks they wear beneath their cloaks.
- The Nine are skull headed demons, who ride winged horses. The Witch-king himself rides a dragon-like creature, and has no face. Only a suspended crown and two red eyes can be seen. The Nazgûl have the Red Eye of Barad-dûr rather than the emblem of Minas Morgul.
- The role of the Ringwraiths was expanded with material from The Hunt for the Ring.
1982-97: Middle-earth Role Playing:
- The name of the eight, other than Khamûl, are given as Er-Murazor (the Witch-king, of Númenórean race), Dwar, Ji Indur, Akhorahil (Númenórean), Hoarmurath, Adunaphel (female Númenórean), Ren and Uvatha.
- The Nazgûl are portrayed as black figures with red eyes and purple mantle.
- All the Nazgûl are named - The Witch-king of Angmar, The Dark Marshal, Khamûl The Easterling, The Betrayer, The Shadow Lord, The Undying, The Dwimmerlaik, The Tainted and The Knight of Umbar.
- Black Riders form a threat in the Shire-stages of the game, where they need to be avoided by the player (in the persona of Frodo Baggins), and as the end boss for the game (in the persona of Aragorn). They are tall and robed in black, and nothing is seen underneath.
2001-03: The Lord of the Rings (film series):
- The Nazgûl serve as the suspense in the first half of the first film. Their dialogue is changed; the conversation with Gaffer Gamgee is omitted, and the conversation with Farmer Maggot is reduced. The Nine have an iconic scream, provided by Fran Walsh. Under their robes, they are pale white ghostly creatures.
- After the death of the Witch-king, the other eight are taken out by eagles and debris from Mount Doom, however, nothing is told of their individual fates.
- The Nazgûl, other than the Witch-king, are given Neo-Quenya titles based on their numbers, and various English titles:
- Úlairë Attëa (from atta = 2); Black Predator, Keeper of Dol Guldur, Second of the Nine Riders, The Easterling.
- Úlairë Nelya (from neldë = 3); Black Hunter, Lieutenant of Morgul, Third of the Nine Riders
- Úlairë Cantëa (from canta = 4); Black Assassin, Lieutenant of Dol Guldur, Fourth of the Nine Riders
- Úlairë Lemenya (from lempe = 5); Black Enemy, Lieutenant of Morgul, Fifth of the Nine Riders
- Úlairë Enquëa (from enquë = 6); Black Threat, Lieutenant of Morgul, Sixth of the Nine Riders
- Úlairë Ostëa [sic, later corrected to Úlairë Otsëa] (from otso = 7); Black Specter, Lieutenant of Morgul, Seventh of the Nine Riders
- Úlairë Toldëa (from tolto = 8); Black Shadow, Messenger of Morgul, Eight of the Nine Riders
- Úlairë Nertëa (from nertë = 9); Black Horseman, Messenger of Dol Guldur, Ninth of the Nine Riders.
- The Mordor faction has two different Nazgûl units: "Witch-king on Fell Beast" and "Nazgûl on Fell Beast". They are primarily used for scouting and surprise attacks.
- A new Ringwraith is introduced in the expansion pack, The Rise of the Witch-king. Morgomir is the "Lieutenant of Carn-Dûm", the right-hand man of the Witch-king, of Black Númenórean descent. The design is similar to that in Peter Jackson's films: he is hooded and cloaked when he works for the Mordor faction, and white and ghostly when he fights for Angmar.
2007: The Lord of the Rings Online:
- The Nazgûl appear several times throughout the game. Hobbit characters first witness the Black Riders in the Shire during the Prologue. Early in the game one of the Nine wounds a Dunedain Ranger Amdir with a Morgul blade, who is later transformed into a Wraith himself, despite the bess efforts of Free Peoples. Later, the player attempts to resist the troubles the Nine are spreading in Bree-Land. Various people along their path - from Hobbits, to Men of Bree, to people east of Amon Sul - note how the local wildlife became unusually aggressive lately, though few connect it to the influence of Nazgûl.
- As stated in The Fellowship of the Ring, only eight horses of the Wraiths were found along the shores of Bruinen. Glorfindel, Elrond and his sons all enlist you to find the missing one - and while the horse is eventually found, it is clear the the Nazgûl himself escaped. The player foils his attempts to organize the Trolls of the Trollshaws and pursues him into the Misty Mountains, where the severely weakened Wraith is finally defeated, with his spirit send back to Mordor.
- During the Fellowship's stay in Lothlorien, the Galadhrim Elves launch a military strike against Dol Guldur, to draw the attention of the Eye from the company departing down the Shores of Anduin. At this point, three Nazgûl reside in the fortress, their names are given as "The Black Blade of Lebennin", "The Gloom of Nurn" and the strongest of them three "The Lieutenant of Dol Guldur". A large force of players confronts the Lieutenant and his Fell Beast at the chief tower of Dol Guldur.
- During their travel down the waters of the Great River, Legolas shot and killed a fell shadow in the sky, not knowing it to be a Nazgûl. The player is later able to find the corpse of the fell beast in the Brown Lands and it becomes clear that a Nazgûl is not far - only this time the player cannot receive help from Elrond or Galadriel, who helped him survive two last encounters. At night, the Wraith ambushes your friends, but the player manages to drive him away with the use of fire. A girl named Nona is wounded in this fight, but the Free Peoples managed to bring her to Lady Galadriel in time to heal the wound.
- In the Evil Campaign, the Eight Nazgûl bring Witch-King back to life after Sauron reclaims The One Ring.
- The Nazgûl appear in a flasback during the prologue of the game, in which they attack the Rangers at Sarn Ford, the entrance of the Shire. Later in the flashback their leader, the Witch-king, speaks with Agandaûr.
 See also
- ↑ Sauron created the One Ring around this year, and later distributed the Nine Rings (cf. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B and J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn", "Concerning Galadriel and Celeborn").
- ↑ The identity of the messenger is unknown. In fandom it has been proposed that he was the Mouth of Sauron. Michael Martinez considers more possible that it was a Nazgûl .
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Akallabêth: The Downfall of Númenor"
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Hunt for the Ring", "(i) Of the Journey of the Black Riders"
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age"
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Second Age"
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Council of Elrond"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, "Words, Phrases and Passages in Various Tongues in The Lord of the Rings", in Parma Eldalamberon XVII (edited by Christopher Gilson), pp. 31, 79, 125
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "The History of the Akallabêth", p. 153 (§30)
- ↑ Helge Fauskanger, "English-Quenya Wordlist (Quettaparma Quenyanna)", Ardalambion (accessed 25 June 2011)
- ↑ Ruth S. Noel, The Languages of Tolkien's Middle-earth
- ↑ Michael Martinez, "What is the Literal Translation of Úlairi?" dated 15 August 2014, middle-earth.xenite.org (accessed 16 August 2014)
- ↑ Peter C. Fenlon, Jr. et al. (1987), Lords of Middle-earth Vol II: The Mannish Races (#8003)
- ↑ Jessica Ney (ed.; 1990), Angus McBride's Characters of Middle-earth (#8007)
- ↑ "Naming the Nazgul", Forum.Barrowdowns.com (accessed 31 July 2012)
- ↑ "Lord Of The Rings (search function)", Trade Cards Online (accessed 31 July 2012)
- ↑ The Lord of the Rings: War in the North, Prologue
- The Fellowship of the Ring, passim.
- The Two Towers, passim.
- The Return of the King, passim.
- Unfinished Tales, The Hunt for the Ring
- The Treason of Isengard, The Great River
- The War of the Ring, The Passage of the Marshes
- The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, #156, #210, #212, #246, #297
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings, in The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion (edited by W. G. Hammond and C. Scull)